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Enterprise Resiliency: Breakfast of Champions

Ep. 15

Prior to the pandemic, workdays used to look a whole lot different. If you had a break, you could take a walk to stretch your legs, shake the hands of your co-workers, or get some 1-on-1 face time with the boss. Ahh... those were the days. That close contact we once had is now something that many of us yearn for as we’ve had to abruptly lift and shift from living in our office to working from our home. But communicating and socializing aren’t the only things that were easier back then. The walls of your office have expanded, and with them, the boundaries of your security protocols. Small in-office tasks like patching a server have now become multi-step processes that require remote management, remote updates, and remote administrative control. With that comes the prioritization of resilience and what it means for enterprises, customers, and security teams alike. That’s where remote enterprise resiliency comes into play.  


Today on the pod, we explore the final chapter of the MDDR. Irfan Mirza, Director of Enterprise Continuity and Resilience at Microsoft, wraps up the observations from the report by giving hosts Nic Fillingham and Natalya Godyla the rundown on enterprise resiliency and discusses how we can ensure the highest levels of security while working from home. Irfan explains the Zero trust model and how Microsoft is working to extend security benefits to your kitchen or home office, or...  that make-shift workspace in your closet.  


In the second segment, Andrew Paverd, Senior Researcher on the Microsoft Security Response Center Team and jack of all trades, stops by… and we’re not convinced he’s fully human. He’s here to tell us about the many hats he wears, from safe systems programming to leveraging AI to help with processes within the MSRC, and shares how he has to think like a hacker to prevent attacks. Spoiler alert: he’s a big follower of Murphy’s Law.   


In This Episode, You Will Learn:  

• How classical security models are being challenged 

• What the Zero Trust Model is and how it works  

• The three critical areas of resilience: extending the enterprise boundary, prioritizing resilient performance, and validating the resilience of our human infrastructure.  

• How hackers approach our systems and technologies 

 

Some Questions We Ask: 

• How has security changed as a product of the pandemic? 

• Do we feel like we have secured the remote workforce? 

• What frameworks exist to put a metric around where an organization is in terms of its resiliency? 

• What is Control Flow Guard (CFG) and Control-Flow Integrity? 

• What’s the next stage for the Rust programming language?  


Resources: 

Microsoft Digital Defense Report: 

https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/security/business/security-intelligence-report 


Irfan’s LinkedIn 

https://www.linkedin.com/in/irfanmirzausa/ 


Andrew’s LinkedIn 

https://www.linkedin.com/in/andrewpaverd/ 


Nic’s LinkedIn    

https://www.linkedin.com/in/nicfill/    


Natalia’s LinkedIn    

https://www.linkedin.com/in/nataliagodyla/    


Microsoft Security Blog:     

https://www.microsoft.com/security/blog/   



Transcript

(Full transcript can be found at https://aka.ms/SecurityUnlockedEp15)


Nic Fillingham:

Hello, and welcome to Security Unlocked, a new podcast from Microsoft, where we unlock insights from the latest in news and research from across Microsoft security, engineering and operations teams. I'm Nic Fillingham.


Natalia Godyla:

And I'm Natalia Godyla. In each episode, we'll discuss the latest stories from Microsoft Security, deep dive into the newest threat intel, research and data science.


Nic Fillingham:

And profile some of the fascinating people working on artificial intelligence in Microsoft Security.


Natalia Godyla:

And now let's unlock the pod. Hi Nic, I have big news.


Nic Fillingham:

Big news. Tell me a big news.


Natalia Godyla:

I got a cat. Last night at 8:00 PM, I got a cat.


Nic Fillingham:

Did it come via Amazon Prime drone?


Natalia Godyla:

No.


Nic Fillingham:

Just, that was a very specific time. Like 8:00 PM last night is not usually the time I would associate people getting cats. Tell me how you got your cat.


Natalia Godyla:

It was a lot more conventional. So I had an appointment at the shelter and found a picture of this cat with really nubby legs and immediately-


Nic Fillingham:

(laughs).


Natalia Godyla:

... fell in love obviously. And they actually responded to us and we went and saw the cat, got the cat. The cat is now ours.


Nic Fillingham:

That's awesome. Is the cat's name nubby.


Natalia Godyla:

It's not, but it is on the list of potential name changes. So right now the cat's name is tipper. We're definitely nervous about why the cat was named tipper.


Nic Fillingham:

(laughs).


Natalia Godyla:

We're hiding all of the glass things for right now.


Nic Fillingham:

How do we get to see the cat? Is there, will there be Instagram? Will there be Twitter photos? This is the most important question.


Natalia Godyla:

Wow. I haven't planned that yet.


Nic Fillingham:

You think about that and I'll, uh, I'll start announcing the first guest on this episode.


Natalia Godyla:

(laughs).


Nic Fillingham:

On today's episode, we speak with Irfan Mirza, who is wrapping up our coverage of the Microsoft Digital Defense Report with a conversation about enterprise resiliency. Now, this is really all of the chapters that are in the MDDR, the nation state actors, the increase in cyber crime sophistication, business email compromise that you've heard us talk about on the podcast, all gets sort of wrapped up in a nice little bow in this conversation where we talk about all right, what does it mean, what does it mean for customers? What does it mean for enterprises? What does it mean for security teams? And so we talk about enterprise resiliency. And we actually recorded this interview in late 2020, but here we are, you know, two months later and those findings are just as relevant, just as important. It's a great conversation. And after that, we speak with-


Natalia Godyla:

Andrew Paverd. So he is a senior researcher on the Microsoft Security Response Center team. And his work is well, well, he does a ton of things. I honestly don't know how he has time to pull all of this off. So he does everything from safe systems programming to leveraging AI, to help with processes within MSRC, the Microsoft Security Response Center. And I just recall one of the quotes that he said from our conversation was hackers don't respect your assumptions, or something to that effect, but it's such a succinct way of describing how hackers approach our systems and technology. So another really great conversation with a, a super intelligent researcher here at Microsoft.


Nic Fillingham:

On with the pod.


Natalia Godyla:

On with the pod. Today, we're joined by Irfan Mirza, Director of Enterprise Continuity and Resilience, and we'll be discussing the Microsoft Digital Defense Report and more specifically enterprise resilience. So thank you for being on the show today, Irfan.


Irfan Mirza:

Thanks so much glad to be here. And hope we have a, a great discussion about this. This is such an important topic now.


Natalia Godyla:

Yes, absolutely. And we have been incrementally working through the Microsoft Digital Defense Report, both Nic and I have read it and have had some fantastic conversations with experts. So really looking forward to hearing about the summation around resilience and how that theme is pulled together throughout the report. So let's start it off by just hearing a little bit more about yourself. So can you tell us about your day-to-day? What is your role at Microsoft?


Irfan Mirza:

Well, I lead the enterprise continuity and resilience team and we kind of provide governance overall at the enterprise. We orchestrate sort of all of the, the risk mitigations. We go and uncover what the gaps are, in our enterprise resilience story, we try to measure the effectiveness of what we're doing. We focus on preparedness, meaning that the company's ready and, you know, our critical processes and services are always on the ready. It's a broad space because it spans a very, very large global enterprise. And it's a very deep space because we have to be experts in so many areas. So it's a fun space by saying that.


Natalia Godyla:

Great. And it's really appropriate today then we're talking about the MDDR and enterprise resilience. So let's start at a high level. So can you talk a little bit about just how security has changed as a product of the pandemic? Why is resilience so important now?


Irfan Mirza:

Yeah, it's a great question. A lot of customers are asking that, our field is asking that question, people within the company are asking. Look, we've been 11 months under this pandemic. Maybe, you know, in some places like China, they've been going through it for a little bit longer than us, you know, a couple of months more. What we're finding after having sort of tried to stay resilient through this pandemic, uh, one obviously is on the human side, everyone's doing as much as we possibly can there. But the other part of it is on the enterprise side. What is it that we're having to think about as we think of security and as we think of enterprise resilience?


Irfan Mirza:

There are a couple of big things that I think I would note, one is that, look, when this pandemic hit us, our workforce lifted and shifted. I mean, by that, I mean that we, we, we got up out of our offices and we all left. I mean, we took our laptops and whatever we could home. And we started working remotely. It was a massive, massive lift and shift of personnel, right? We got dispersed. Everybody went to their own homes and most of us have not been back to the office. And it's not just at Microsoft, even, even a lot of our customers and our partners have not gone back to the office at all, right? So that, that's a prolong snow day, if you want to call it that.


Irfan Mirza:

The other thing that happened is our workload went with us. Wasn't just that, "Hey, you know, I'm taking a few days off, I'm going away or going on vacation and, and I'll be checking email periodically." No, I actually took our work with us and we started doing it remotely. So what that's done is it's created sort of a, a need to go back and look at what we thought was our corporate security boundary or perimeter.


Irfan Mirza:

You know, in the classical model, we used to think of the corporation and its facilities as the, the area that we had to go and secure. But now in this dispersed workforce model, we have to think about my kitchen as part of that corporate perimeter. And all of a sudden we have to ensure that, that my kitchen is as secure as the corporate network or as the facilities or the office that I was working from. That paradigm is completely different than anything we'd thought about before.


Nic Fillingham:

And so Irfan, in the MDDR, uh, this section, um, and if you've got the report open, you're playing along at home, I believe it's page 71. This enterprise resiliency is sort of a wrap-up of, of a lot of the observations that are in the MDDR report. It's not a new section. It's as you're getting towards the end of the report, you're looking for, okay, now what does this mean to me? I'm a CSO. I need to make new security policies, security decisions for my organization. This concept of enterprise resiliency is sort of a wrap up of everything that we've seen across cyber crime, across the nation state, et cetera, et cetera. Is that, is that accurate? Is that a good way to sort of read that section in the report?


Irfan Mirza:

Yeah. It is really the, the way to think of it, right.? It's sort of like a, the conclusion, so what, or why is this relevant to me and what can I do about it? When you think about the report and the way that it's structured, look, we, you know, the report goes into great detail about cyber crime as you called out Nic. And then it talks about nation state threats.


Irfan Mirza:

These are newer things to us. We've certainly seen them on the rise, actors that are well-trained, they're well-funded they play a long game, not necessarily a short game, they're looking, they're watching and they're waiting, they're waiting for us to make mistakes or to have gaps, they look for changes in tactics, either ours, uh, they themselves are quite agile, right?


Irfan Mirza:

So when you think about the environment in which we have to think about resilience, and we have to think about security, that environment itself has got new vectors or new threats that are, that are impacting it, right? In addition to that, our workforce has now dispersed, right? We're all over the, all over the globe. We see emerging threats that are, that are, non-classical like ransomware. We see attacks on supply chain. We continue to see malware and malware growing, right?


Irfan Mirza:

And, and so when you think about that, you have to think if I need to secure now my, my dispersed corporate assets and resources, my people, the workload, the data, the services and the processes that are all there, what are the, the sort of three big things I would need to think about? And so this report sort of encapsulates all, all of that. It gives the details of what, what's happening. And, and then page 71 is you say that resilience piece sort of comes back and says, "Look, your security boundaries extended. Like it or not, it is extended at this point. You've got to think beyond that on-site perimeter that we were thinking about before."


Irfan Mirza:

So we have to start thinking differently. And th- there's three critical areas that are sort of called out, acknowledging the security boundary has increased, thinking about resilience and performance, and then validating the resilience of our human infrastructure. This is like new ideas, but these are all becoming imperatives for us. We're having to do this now, whether we like it or not.


Irfan Mirza:

And so this report sort of gives our customers, and, and it's a reflection of what we're doing in the company. It's an open and honest conversation about how we propose to tackle these challenges that we're facing.


Nic Fillingham:

And so Irfan if we can move on to that critical area, number two, that prioritizing resilient performance. When I say the word performance and resilient performance, is that scoped down just to sort of IT infrastructure, or does that go all the way through to the humans, the actual people in the organization and, um, how they are performing their own tasks, their own jobs and the tasks that are part of their, their job and et cetera, et cetera? What's the, I guess what's the scope of that area too?


Irfan Mirza:

As we were thinking about resilience, as you know, shortly after we dispersed the workforce, we started thinking about, about what should be included in our classical understanding of resilience. But when you think about, about typical IT services and online services, and so on, a lot of that work is already being done with the life site reviews that we do and people are paying very close attention to service performance. We have SLAs, we have obligations, we have commitments that we've made that our services will be performing to a certain degree, but there are also business processes that are associated with these services very closely.


Irfan Mirza:

When you think about all of the processes that are involved and services that are involved from the time a customer thinks of buying Office, uh, 365, as an example, to the time that they provision their first mailbox, or they receive their first email, there are dozens of process, business processes.


Irfan Mirza:

Every single service in that chain could be working to 100% efficiency. And yet if the business processes, aren't there, for instance, to process the deal, to process the contract, to process, uh, the customer's payment or, uh, acknowledge receipt of the payment in order to be able to provision the service, all of these processes, all of a sudden have to, we have to make sure that they're also performing.


Irfan Mirza:

So when we start thinking about resilience, up to now, business continuity has focused on, are you ready? Are you prepared? Are your dependencies mapped? Have you, have you done a business impact analysis? Are you validating and testing your preparedness? You know, are you calling down your call tree for instance? But I think where we're going now with true enterprise resilience, especially in this sort of modern


Irfan Mirza:

... day, we're, we're looking at performance, right? What, what is your preparedness resulting in? So if you stop and you think about a child at school, they get homework. Well, the homework really, they bring it home. They do it. They take it back to the teacher. They get graded on it. That's wonderful. This means that the child is ready. But at some point in time, the class or the teacher is going to give them a test, and that test is going to be the measure of performance, right?


Irfan Mirza:

So we need to start thinking of resilience and continuity in the same way. We're prepared. We've done all our homework. Now let's go and see how many outages did you have? How critical were the outages? How long did they last? How many of them were repeat outages? How many of the repeat outages were for services that are supposed to have zero downtown, like services that are always supposed to on like your DNS service or your identity auth- authentication service, right? So, when you start thinking about, uh, resilience from that perspective, now you've got a new set of data that you have to go and capture, or data that you're capturing, you have to now have to have insights from it. You've got to be able to correlate your preparedness, meaning the homework that you've done with your actual performance, your outage and your, and your gap information. All right?


Irfan Mirza:

So that, that's what prioritizing resilient performance is all about. It's about taking realtime enterprise preparedness and mapping it to real time enterprise performance. That tells you if your preparedness is good enough or not, or what it is that you need to do. There's a loop here, a feedback loop that has to be closed. You can't just say that, well, you know, we've done all the exercises theoretically. We're good and we're ready to take on any sort of a crisis or, or, or disaster. Yeah, that's fine. Can we compare it to realtime what you're doing? Can we break glass and see what that looks like? Can we shut you down and or shut down parts of your operation as in the event of an earthquake for instance, or a hurricane wiping out, uh, access to a data center, right? Can we do those things and still be resilient when that happens? So this is what performance and resilience come together in that space.


Natalia Godyla:

So am I right in understanding that beyond, like you said, the theoretical where you think about the policies that you should have in place, and the frameworks that you should have in place, you have the analytics on, you know, the state of, the state of how performant your systems are to date. And then in addition, is there now the need for some sort of stress testing? Like actually figuring out whether an additional load on a system would cause it to break, to not be resilient? Is that now part of the new approach to resilience?


Irfan Mirza:

Yeah. There are, there are several, several things to do here, right? You absolutely said it. There's a stress test. Actually, this pandemic has, is already a stress test in and of itself, right? It's stressing us in a many ways. It's stressing, obviously the psyche and, and, you know, our whole psychology, and our ability to sustain in quarantine, in isolated, in insulated environments and so on. But it's also testing our ability to do the things that we just so, uh, so much took for granted, like the ability to patch a server that's sitting under my desk in the office whenever I needed to, right? That server now has to become a managed item that somebody can manage remotely, patch remotely, update remotely when needed, control administrative access and privileges remotely. But yes, for resilience, I think we need to now collect all of the data that we have been collecting or looking at and saying, can we start to create those correlations between our preparedness and between our real performance?


Irfan Mirza:

But there's another area that this dovetails into which is that of human resilience, right? We talked a little bit earlier about, you know, sort of the whole world enduring this hardship. We need to first and foremost look at our suppliers, subcontractors, people that we're critically dependent on. What is their resilience look like? That's another aspect that we have to go back. In the areas where we have large human resources or, or workforces that are working on our behalf, we need to make sure that they're staying resilient, right?


Irfan Mirza:

We talked on a lot about work/life balance before. Now I think the new buzzword in HR conference rooms is going to be work/life integration. It's completely integrated, and so we need to start thinking about the impact that would have. Are we tracking attrition of our employees, of certain demographics within the employees? Are we looking at disengagement? People just sort of, "Yeah, I'm working from home, but I'm not really being fully engaged." Right? The hallway conversations we used to have are no longer there. And we need to start thinking, are people divesting? Our resources, are they divesting in the workplace? Are they divesting in their, in their work or work/life commitment? These measures are all now having to be sort of like...


Irfan Mirza:

We used to rely on intuition, a look, a hallway gaze, look at the, the snap in somebody's walk as they walked away from you or out of your office. We don't have that anymore. Everybody's relatively stagnant. We're, we're, we're seated. We don't get to see body language that much. We don't get to read that. There's a whole new set of dynamics that are coming into play, and I think smart corporations and smart companies will start looking at this as a very important area to pay attention to.


Nic Fillingham:

How are we measuring that? What tools or sort of techniques, or, or sort of frameworks exist to actually put a metric around this stuff, and determine sort of where, where an organization is in terms of their level of resiliency?


Irfan Mirza:

This question is actually the whole reason why we brought this enterprise resilience sort of a conclusion to this fourth chapter, and, and, you know, the summation of this, of this report.


Irfan Mirza:

What we're doing now is we're saying, look. Things that used to be fundamentally within the domain of IT departments, or used to be fundamentally with, within the domain of live site, or used to be fundamentally in the domain of human resource departments are now all floating up to be corporate imperatives, to be enterprise imperatives. I think the thinking here is that we need to make sure that the data that we've been collecting about, as an example to answer your question, attrition, right? A certain demographic. Millennials, uh, changing jobs, leaving the company, just to pick an example more than anything else. This is no longer just data that the HR Department is interested in, or that recruiting would be interested in, or, or retention would be interested. This is data that's about to significantly impact the enterprise, and it needs to be brought into the enterprise purview.


Irfan Mirza:

Our classical and traditional models of looking at things in silos don't allow us to do that. What we're recommending is that we need to have a broader perspective and try to drive insights from this that do tell a more comprehensive story about our ent- enterprise resilience. That story needs to include the resilience of our services, our business processes, our suppliers, our human capital, our infrastructure, our extended security boundary, our data protection, uh, prevention of data loss, our intrusion detection. I mean, there's such a broad area that we have to cover. That's we're saying. And, and as we implement this new sort of zero trust model, I think the, the effectiveness of that model, how much progress we're making is becoming an enterprise priority, not just something that the IT department is going to go around on it's own.


Nic Fillingham:

Irfan, I wonder if I could put you on the spot, and were there any interesting bits of data that you saw in those first couple months of the shift to remote work where like, yeah, the number of unique devices on the Microsoft corporate network quadrupled in 48 hours. Like any, anything like that? I'd just wondering what, what little stats you may have in hand.


Irfan Mirza:

Yeah. The number of devices and sort of the flavors of devices, we've always anticipated that that's going to be varied. We're cognizant of that. Look, we have, you know, people have PCs. They have MACs. They have Linux machines, and, and they have service o- operating software. There's a lot of different flavors. And, and it's not just the device and the OS that matters, it's also what applications you're running. Some applications we can certify or trust, and others perhaps we can't, or that we still haven't gotten around to, to verifying, right? And all of these sit, and they all perform various functions including intruding and potentially exfiltrating data and Spyware and Malware and all of that. So when you think about that, we've always anticipated it.


Irfan Mirza:

But the one thing that, that we were extremely worried about, and I think a lot of our Enterprise customers were worried about, is the performance of the workforce. What we found very early on in, in the, in the lift and shift phase was that we needed to have a way of measuring is our, our built processes working? Are we checking in the same amount of code as we were before? And we noted a couple of interesting things. We looked at our, our VPN usage and said, what are those numbers look like? Are they going up and down?


Irfan Mirza:

And I think what we found is that initially, the effect was quite comparable to what we had, uh, when we experienced snow days. Schools are shut down. People don't go to work. They're slipping and sliding over here. We're just not prepared for snow weather in, in this state like some of the others. So what happened is, we saw that we were, we were sort of seeing the same level of productivity as snow days. We say that we had the same level of VPN usage as snow days, and we were worried because that, you know, when, when it snows, people usually take the day off, and then they go skiing.


Irfan Mirza:

So what happened? Well, after about a week things started picking back up. People got tired of sort of playing snow day and decided that, you know what? It's time to, to dig in, and human nature, I think, kicked in, the integrity of the workforce kicked in. And sure enough, productivity went up, VPN usage went up, our number of sessions, the duration of sessions. Meetings became shorter.


Nic Fillingham:

Can I tell you hallelujah? (laughs)


Irfan Mirza:

(laughs)


Nic Fillingham:

That's one of the, that's one of the great-


Irfan Mirza:

Absolutely.


Nic Fillingham:

... upsides, isn't it? To this, this new culture of remote work is that we're all meeting for, for less amount of time, which I think, I think is fantastic.


Irfan Mirza:

Look, you know, in times of crisis, whether it's a natural disaster, or a pandemic, or, or a manmade situation such as a war or a civil war, or whatever, I, I think what happens is the amount of resources that you are customarily used to having access to gets limited. The way in which you work shifts. It changes. And so the, the true test of resilience, I think, is when you are able to adapt to those changes gracefully without requiring significant new investment and you're able to still meet and fulfill your customer obligations, your operational expectations. That really is.


Irfan Mirza:

So what you learn in times of hardship are to sort of live, you know, more spartan-like. And that spartan-ism, if there's such a word as that, that's what allows you to stay resilient, to say what are the core things that I need in order to stay up and running? And those fundamental areas become the areas of great investment, the areas that you watch over more carefully, the areas that you measure the performance of, the areas that you look for patterns and, and trends in to try to predict what's happening, right?


Irfan Mirza:

So that is something that carries over from experiences of being in the front lines of a, uh, a war or, or from being, uh, you know, in the midst of a hurricane trying to recover a data center, or an earthquake, or any other, uh, type of power outage, right? These are all the sort of key scenarios that we would be going to look at. And that's one of the things they all have in common. It's really that you don't have the resources or access to the resources that you thought you did, and now you've got to be able to do some things slightly differently.


Natalia Godyla:

Thank you for joining us on the podcast today. It's been great to get your perspective on enterprise resilience. Really fascinating stuff. So, thank you.


Irfan Mirza:

Thank you, Natalia. And, and thank you, Nick. It's been a great conversation. As I look back at this discussion that we had, I feel even, even stronger now that the recommendations that we're making, and the guidance that we're giving our customers and sharing our experiences, becomes really, really important. I think this is something that we're learning as we're going along. We're learning on the journey. We're uncovering things that we didn't know. We're looking at data in a different way. We're, we're trying to figure out how do we sustain ourselves,


Nic Fillingham:

... not just through this pandemic, but also beyond that. And I think the, whatever it is that we're learning, it becomes really important to share. And for our customers and people who are listening to this podcast to share back with us what they've learned, I think that becomes incredibly important because as much as we like to tell people what we're doing, we also want to know what, what people are doing. And so learning that I think will be a great, great experience for us to have as well. So thank you so much for enabling this conversation.


Natalia Godyla:

And now let's meet an expert from the Microsoft security team to learn more about the diverse backgrounds and experiences of the humans creating AI and tech at Microsoft. Welcome back to another episode of Security Unlocked. We are sitting with Andrew Paverd today, senior researcher at Microsoft. Welcome to the show, Andrew.


Andrew Paverd:

Thanks very much. And thanks for having me.


Natalia Godyla:

Oh, we're really excited to chat with you today. So I'm just doing a little research on your background and looks like you've had a really varied experience in terms of security domains consulting for mobile device security. I saw some research on system security. And it looks like now you're focused on confidential computing at Microsoft. So let's start there. Can you talk a little bit about what a day in the life of Andrew looks like at Microsoft?


Andrew Paverd:

Absolutely. I think I have one of the most fascinating roles at Microsoft. On a day-to-day basis, I'm a researcher in the confidential computing group at the Microsoft Research Lab in Cambridge, but I also work very closely with the Microsoft Security Response Center, the MSRC. And so these are the folks who, who are dealing with the frontline incidents and responding to reported vulnerabilities at Microsoft. But I work more on the research side of things. So how do we bridge the gap between research and what's really happening on the, on the front lines? And so I, I think my position is quite unique. It's, it's hard to describe in any other way than that, other than to say, I work on research problems that are relevant to Microsoft security.


Natalia Godyla:

And what are some of those research problems that you're focused on?


Andrew Paverd:

Oh, so it's actually been a really interesting journey since I joined Microsoft two years ago now. My background, as you mentioned, was actually more in systems security. So I had, I previously worked with technologies like trusted execution environments, but since joining Microsoft, I've worked on two really, really interesting projects. The, the first has been around what we call safe systems programming languages.


Andrew Paverd:

So to give a bit more detail about it in the security response center, we've looked at the different vulnerabilities that Microsoft has, has patched and addressed over the years and seen some really interesting statistics that something like 70% of those vulnerabilities for the pa- past decade have been caused by a class of vulnerability called memory corruption. And so the, the question around this is how do we try and solve the root cause of problem? How do we address, uh, memory corruption bugs in a durable way?


Andrew Paverd:

And so people have been looking at both within Microsoft and more broadly at how we could do this by transitioning to a, a different programming paradigm, a more secure programming language, perhaps. So if you think of a lot of software being written in C and C++ this is potentially a, a cause of, of memory corruption bugs. So we were looking at what can we do about changing to safer programming languages for, for systems software. So you might've heard about new languages that have emerged like the Rust programming language. Part of this project was investigating how far we can go with languages like Rust and, and what do we need to do to enable the use of Rust at Microsoft.


Natalia Godyla:

And what was your role with Rust? Is this just the language that you had determined was a safe buyable option, or were you part of potentially producing that language or evolving it to a place that could be safer?


Andrew Paverd:

That's an excellent question. So in, in fact it, it was a bit of both first determining is this a suitable language? Trying to define the evaluation criteria of how we would determine that. But then also once we'd found Rust to be a language that we decided we could potentially run with, there was an element of what do we need to do to bring this up to, let's say to be usable within Microsoft. And actually I, I did quite a bit of work on, on this. We realized that, uh, some Microsoft security technologies that are available in our Microsoft compilers weren't yet available in the Rust compiler. One in particular is, is called control flow guard. It's a Windows security technology and this wasn't available in Rust.


Andrew Paverd:

And so the team I, I work with looked at this and said, okay, we'd like to have this implemented, but nobody was available to implement it at the time. So I said, all right, let me do a prototype implementation and, uh, contributed this to the open source project. And in the end, I ended up following through with that. And so I've, I've been essentially maintaining the, the Microsoft control flow guide implementation for the, the Rust compiler. So really an example of Microsoft contributing to this open source language that, that we hope to be using further.


Nic Fillingham:

Andrew, could you speak a little bit more to control flow guard and control flow integrity? What is that? I know a little bit about it, but I'd love to, for our audience to sort of like expand upon that idea.


Andrew Paverd:

Absolutely. So this is actually an, an example of a technology that goes back to a collaboration between the MSRC, the, the security response center and, and Microsoft Research. This technology control flow guard is really intended to enforce a property that we call control flow integrity. And that simply means that if you think of a program, the control flow of a program jumps through two different functions. And ideally what you want in a well-behaved program is that the control always follows a well-defined paths.


Andrew Paverd:

So for example, you start executing a function at the beginning of the function, rather than halfway through. If for example, you could start executing a function halfway through this leads to all kinds of possible attacks. And so what control flow guard does is it checks whenever your, your program's going to do a bronch, whenever it's going to jump to a different place in the code, it checks that that jump is a valid call target, that you're actually jumping to the correct place. And this is not the attacker trying to compromise your program and launch one of many different types of attacks.


Nic Fillingham:

And so how do you do that? What's the process by which you do en- ensure that control flow?


Andrew Paverd:

Oh, this is really interesting. So this is a technology that's supported by Windows, at the moment it's only available on, on Microsoft Windows. And it works in conjunction between both the compiler and the operating system. So the compiler, when you compile your program gives you a list of the valid code targets. It says, "All right, here are the places in the program where you should be allowed to jump to." And then as the program gets loaded, the, the operating system loads, this list into a highly optimized form so that when the program is running it can do this check really, really quickly to say, is this jump that I'm about to do actually allowed? And so it's this combination of the Windows operating system, plus the compiler instrumentation that, that really make this possible.


Andrew Paverd:

Now this is quite widely used in Windows. Um, we want in fact as much Microsoft software as possible to use this. And so it's really critical that we enable it in any sort of programming language that we want to use.


Nic Fillingham:

How do you protect that list though? So now you, isn't that now a target for potential attackers?


Andrew Paverd:

Absolutely. Yeah. And, and it becomes a bit of a race to, to-


Nic Fillingham:

Cat and mouse.


Andrew Paverd:

... protect different-


Natalia Godyla:

(laughs).


Andrew Paverd:

A bit of, a bit of a cat, cat and mouse game. But at least the nice thing is because list is in one place, we can protect that area of memory to a much greater degree than, than the rest of the program.


Natalia Godyla:

So just taking a step back, can you talk a little bit about your path to security? What roles have you had? What brought you to security? What's informing your role today?


Andrew Paverd:

It's an interesting story of how I ended up working in security. It was when I was applying for PhD programs, I had written a PhD research proposal about a topic I thought was very interesting at the time on mobile cloud computing. And I still think that's a hugely interesting topic. And what happened was I sent this research proposal to an academic at the University of Oxford, where I, I was looking to study, and I didn't hear anything for, for a while.


Andrew Paverd:

And then, a fe- a few days later I got an email back from a completely different academic saying, "This is a very interesting topic. I have a project that's quite similar, but looking at this from a security perspective, would you be interested in doing a PhD in security on, on this topic?" And, so this was my very mind-blowing experience for me. I hadn't considered security in that way before, but I, I took a course on security and found that this was something I was, I was really interested in and ended up accepting the, the PhD offer and did a PhD in system security. And that's really how I got into security. And as they say, the rest is history.


Natalia Godyla:

Is there particular part of security, particular domain within security that is most near and dear to your heart?


Andrew Paverd:

Oh, that's a good question.


Natalia Godyla:

(laughs).


Andrew Paverd:

I think, I, I think for me, security it- itself is such a broad field that we need to ensure that we have security at, at all levels of the stack, at all, places within the chain, in that it's really going to be the weakest link that an attacker will, will go for. And so I've actually changed field perhaps three times so far. This is what keeps it interesting. My PhD work was around trusted computing. And then as I said, I, since joining Microsoft, I've been largely working in both safe systems programming languages and more recently AI and security. And so I think that's what makes security interesting. The, the fact that it's never the same thing two days in a row.


Natalia Godyla:

I think you hit on the secret phrase for this show. So AI and security. Can you talk a little bit about what you've been doing in AI and security within Microsoft?


Andrew Paverd:

Certainly. So about a year ago, as many people in the industry realized that AI is being very widely used and is having great results in so many different products and services, but that there is a risk that AI algorithms and systems themselves may be attacked. For example, I, I know you had some, some guests on your podcast previously, including Ram Shankar Siva Kumar who discussed the Adversarial ML Threat Matrix. And this is primarily the area that I've been working in for the past year. Looking at how AI systems can be, can be attacked from a security or a privacy perspective in collaboration with researchers, from MSR, Cambridge.


Natalia Godyla:

What are you most passionate about? What's next for a couple of these projects? Like with Rust, is there a desire to make that ubiquitously beyond Microsoft? What's the next stage?


Andrew Paverd:

Ab- absolutely.


Natalia Godyla:

Lots of questions. (laughs).


Andrew Paverd:

Yeah. There's a lot of interest in this. So, um, personally, I'm, I'm not working on the SSPL project myself, or I'm, I'm not working on the safe systems programming languages project myself any further, but I know that there's a lot of interest within Microsoft. And so hopefully we'll see some exciting things e- emerging in that space. But I think my focus is really going to be more on the, both the security of AI, and now we're also exploring different areas where we can use AI for security. This is in collaboration, more with the security response center. So looking into different ways that we can automate different processes and use AI for different types of, of analysis. So certainly a lot more to, to come in that space.


Nic Fillingham:

I wanted to come back to Rust for, for a second there, Andrew. So you talked about how the Rust programming language was specifically designed for, correct me on taxonomy, memory integrity. Is that correct?


Andrew Paverd:

For, for memory safety, yeah.


Nic Fillingham:

Memory safety. Got it. What's happening on sort of


Nic Fillingham:

... and sort of the, the flip side of that coin in terms of instead of having to choose a programming language that has memory safety as sort of a core tenet. What's happening with the operating system to ensure that languages that maybe don't have memory safety sort of front and center can be safer to use, and aren't threats or risks to memory integrity are, are sort of mitigated. So what's happening on the operating system side, is that what Control Flow Guard is designed to do? Or are there other things happening to ensure that memory safety is, is not just the responsibility of the programming language?


Andrew Paverd:

Oh, it's, that's an excellent question. So Control Flow Guard certainly helps. It helps to mitigate exploits once there's been an, an initial memory safety violation. But I think that there's a lot of interesting work going on both in the product space, and also in the research space about how do we minimize the amount of software that, that we have to trust. If you accept that software is going to have to bugs, it's going to have vulnerabilities. What we'd like to do, is we'd like to trust as little software as possible.


Andrew Paverd:

And so there's a really interesting effort which is now available in, in Azure under the, the heading of Confidential Computing. Which is this idea that you want to run your security sensitive workloads in a hardware enforced trusted execution environment. So you actually want to take the operating system completely out of what we call the trusted computing base. So that even if there are vulnerabilities in, in the OS, they don't affect your security sensitive workloads. So I think that there's this, this great trend towards confidential computing around compartmentalizing and segmenting the software systems that we're going to be running.


Andrew Paverd:

So removing the operating system from the trusted computing. And, and indeed taking this further, there's already something available in Azure, you can look up Azure Confidential Computing. But there's a lot of research coming in from the, the academic side of things about new technologies and new ways of, of enforcing separation and compartmentalization. And so I think it's part of this full story of, of security that we'll need memory safe programming languages. We'll need compartmentalization techniques, some of which, uh, rely on new hardware features. And we need to put all of this together to really build a, a secure ecosystem.


Nic Fillingham:

I only heard of Confidential Computing recently. I'm sure it's not a new concept. But for me as a sort of a productized thing, I only sort of recently stumbled upon it. I did not realize that there was this gap, there was this delta in terms of data being encrypted at rest, data being encrypted in transit. But then while the data itself was being processed or transformed, that that was a, was a gap. Is that the core idea around Confidential Computing to ensure that at no stage the data is not encrypted? Is, is that sort of what it is?


Andrew Paverd:

Absolutely. And it's one of the key pieces. So we call that isolated execution in the sense that the data is running in a, a trusted environment where only the code within that environment can access that data. So if you think about the hypervisor and the operation system, all of those can be outside of the trusted environment. We don't need to trust those for the correct computation of, of that data. And as soon as that data leaves this trusted environment, for example if it's written out of the CPU into the DRAM, then it gets automatically encrypted.


Andrew Paverd:

And so we have that really, really strong guarantee that only our code is gonna be touching our data. And the second part of this, and this is the really important part, is a, a protocol called remote attestation where this trusted environment can prove to a remote party, for example the, the customer, exactly what code is going to be running over that data. So you have a, a very high degree of assurance of, "This is exactly the code that's gonna be running over my data. And no other code will, will have access to it."


Andrew Paverd:

And the incredibly interesting thing is then, what can we build with these trusted execution environment? What can we build with Confidential Computing? And to bring this back to the, the keyword of your podcast, we're very much looking at confidential machine learning. How do we run machine learning and AI workloads within these trusted execution environments? And, and that unlocks a whole lot of new potential.


Nic Fillingham:

Andrew, do you have any advice for people that are m- maybe still studying or thinking about studying? Uh, I see so you, your initial degree was in, not in computer engineering, was it?


Andrew Paverd:

No. I, I actually did electrical engineering. And then electrical and computer engineering. And by the time I did a PhD, they put me in a computer science department, even though-


Nic Fillingham:

(laughs).


Andrew Paverd:

... I was doing software engineering.


Nic Fillingham:

Yeah. I, so I wonder if folks out there that, that don't have a software or a computer engineering degree, maybe they have a, a different engineering focus or a mathematics focus. Any advice on when and how to consider computer engineering, or sort of the computing field?


Andrew Paverd:

Yeah. Uh, absolutely. Uh, I think, eh, in particular if we're talking about security, I'd say have a look at security. It's often said that people who come with the best security mindsets haven't necessarily gone through the traditional programs. Uh, of course it's fantastic if you can do a, a computer science degree. But if you're coming at this from another area, another, another aspect, you bring a unique perspective to the world of cyber security. And so I would say, have a look at security. See if it's something that, that interests you. You, you might find like I did that it's a completely fascinating topic.


Andrew Paverd:

And the from there, it would just be a question of seeing where your skills and expertise could best fit in to the broad picture of security. We desperately need people working in this field from all different disciplines, bringing a diversity of thought to the field. And so I, I'd highly encourage people to have a look at this.


Natalia Godyla:

And you made a, quite a hard turn into security through the PhD suggestion. It, like you said, it was one course and then you were off. So, uh, what do you think from your background prepared you to make that kind of transition? And maybe there's something there that could inform others along the way.


Andrew Paverd:

I think, yes, it, it's a question of looking at, uh, of understanding the system in as much detail as you possibly can. And then trying to think like, like an attacker. Trying to think about what could go wrong in this system? And as we know, attackers won't respect our assumptions. They will use a system in a different way in which it was designed. And that ability to, to think out of the box, which, which comes from understanding how the system works. And then really just a, a curiosity about security. They call it the security mindset, of perhaps being a little bit cautious and cynical. To say-


Natalia Godyla:

(laughs).


Andrew Paverd:

... "Well, this can go wrong, so it probably will go wrong." But I think that's, that's the best way into it.


Natalia Godyla:

Must be a strong follower of Murphy's Law.


Andrew Paverd:

Oh, yes.


Natalia Godyla:

(laughs).


Nic Fillingham:

What are you watching? What are you binging? What are you reading? Either of those questions, or anything along in that flavor.


Andrew Paverd:

I'll, I'll have to admit, I'm a, I'm a big fan of Star Trek. So I've been watching the new Star Trek Discovery series on, on Netflix. That's, that's great fun. And I've recently been reading a, a really in- interesting book called Atomic Habits. About how we can make some small changes, and, uh, how these can, can help us to build larger habits and, and propagate through.


Nic Fillingham:

That's fascinating. So that's as in looking at trying to learn from how atoms and atomic models work, and seeing if we can apply that to like human behavior?


Andrew Paverd:

Uh, no. It's just the-


Nic Fillingham:

Oh, (laughs).


Andrew Paverd:

... title of the book.


Natalia Godyla:

(laughs).


Nic Fillingham:

You, you had me there.


Natalia Godyla:

Gotcha, Nick.


Nic Fillingham:

I was like, "Wow-"


Natalia Godyla:

(laughs).


Nic Fillingham:

" ... that sounds fascinating." Like, "Nope, nope. Just marketing." Marketing for the win. Have you always been Star Trek? Are you, if, if you had to choose team Star Trek or team Star Wars, or, or another? You, it would be Star Trek?


Andrew Paverd:

I think so. Yeah.


Nic Fillingham:

Yeah, me too. I'm, I'm team Star Trek. Which m- may lose us a lot of subscribers, including Natalia.


Andrew Paverd:

(laughs).


Nic Fillingham:

Natalia has her hands over her mouth here. And she's, "Oh my gosh." Favorite Star Trek show or-


Andrew Paverd:

I, I have to say, it, it would've been the first one I watched, Deep Space Nine.


Nic Fillingham:

I love Deep Space Nine. I whispered that. Maybe that-


Natalia Godyla:

(laughs).


Nic Fillingham:

... it's Deep Space Nine's great. Yep. All right, cool. All right, Andrew, you're allowed back on the podcast. That's good.


Andrew Paverd:

Thanks.


Natalia Godyla:

You're allowed back, but I-


Nic Fillingham:

(laughs).


Natalia Godyla:

... (laughs).


Andrew Paverd:

(laughs).


Nic Fillingham:

Sort of before we close, Andrew, is there anything you'd like to plug? I know you have a, you have a blog. I know you work on a lot of other sorta projects and groups. Anything you'd like to, uh, plug to the listeners?


Andrew Paverd:

Absolutely, yeah. Um, we are actually hiring. Eh, well, the team I work with in Cambridge is, is hiring. So if you're interested in privacy preserving machine learning, please do have a look at the website, careers.microsoft.com. And submit an application to, to join our team.


Natalia Godyla:

That sounds fascinating. Thank you.


Nic Fillingham:

And can we follow along on your journey and all the great things you're working at, at your website?


Andrew Paverd:

Eh, absolutely, yeah. And if you follow along the, the Twitter feeds of both Microsoft Research Cambridge, and the Microsoft Security Response Center, we'll, we'll make sure to tweet about any of the, the new work that's coming out.


Nic Fillingham:

That's great. Well, Andrew Paverd, thank you so much for joining us on the Security Unlocked Podcast. We'd love to have you come back and talk about some of the projects you're working on in a deep-dive section on a future episode.


Andrew Paverd:

Thanks very much for having me.


Natalia Godyla:

Well, we had a great time unlocking insights into security, from research to artificial intelligence. Keep an eye out for our next episode.


Nic Fillingham:

And don't forget to tweet @MSFTSecurity. Or email us at securityunlocked@microsoft.com with topics you'd like to hear on a future episode. Until then, stay safe.


Natalia Godyla:

Stay secure.

More Episodes

4/7/2021

The Language of Cybercrime

Ep. 22
How many languages do you speak?The average person only speaks oneor twolanguages, and for most people that’s plentybecause even as communities arebecoming more global, languages are still very much tied to geographic boundaries.Butwhat happens when you go on the internet where those regions don’t exist the same way they do in real life?Because the internet connects people from every corner of the world, cybercriminals canperpetratescamsin countriesthousands of miles away. So how doorganizationslike Microsoft’s Digital Crime Unit combatcybercrimewhen they don’t even speak the language of the perpetrators?On today’s episode ofSecurity Unlocked, hostsNic FillinghamandNataliaGodylasit down withPeterAnaman,Principal Investigator on the Digital Crimes Unit,to discusshowPeterlooks at digital crimes inavery interconnected world and how language and culture play into the crimes being committed, who’s behind them, and how to stop them.In This Episode, You Will Learn:• Some of the tools the Digital Crime Unit at Microsoft uses to catch criminals.• How language and culturalfactors into cyber crime• Whycyber crimehas been onthe rise since Covid beganSome Questions We Ask:• How has understanding a specific culture helped crack a case?• How does a lawyer who served as an officer in the French Army wind up working at Microsoft?• Are there best practices for content creators to stay safe fromcyber crime?ResourcesPeterAnaman’s LinkedIn:https://www.linkedin.com/in/anamanp/NicFillingham’s LinkedIn:https://www.linkedin.com/in/nicfill/NataliaGodyla’s LinkedIn:https://www.linkedin.com/in/nataliagodyla/Microsoft Security Bloghttps://www.microsoft.com/security/blog/Transcript[Full transcript can be found at https://aka.ms/SecurityUnlockedEp22]Nic:(music)Nic:Hello and welcome to Security Unlocked. A new podcast from Microsoft where we unlock insights from the latest in news and research from across Microsoft's Security Engineering and Operations Teams. I'm Nic Fillingham.Natalia:And I'm Natalia Godyla. In each episode, we'll discuss the latest stories from Microsoft's Security. Deep dive into the newest threat intel, research and data science.Nic:And profile some of the fascinating people working on artificial intelligence in Microsoft Security.Natalia:And now, let's unlock the pod.Natalia:Hello, Nic. How is it going?Nic:Hello, Natalia. I'm very well, thank you. I'm very excited for today's episode. We talk with Peter Anaman, who is a return guest. Uh, he was on an earlier episode where we talked about business email compromise and some of the findings in the 2020 Microsoft Digital Defense Report. And Peter had such great stories that he shared with us in that conversation, that we thought let's bring him back. And let's, let's get the full picture. And wow, did we cover some topics in this conversation. I don't even know where to begin. How would, what's your TLDR for this one, Natalia?Natalia:Well, whenever your friends or family think about cyber security, this is it. One of the stories that really stuck out to me is, Peter went undercover, and has actually gone undercover multiple times, but in this one instance he used the cultural context from his family history, as well as the languages that he knows to gain trust with a bad actor group and catch them out. It's incredible. He speaks so many languages and he told so many stories about how he applies that to his day-to-day work in such interesting ways.Nic:Yeah, I love, for those of you who listened to the podcast, Peter really illustrates how knowledge of multiple cultures, knowledge of multiple languages, understanding how those cultures and languages can sort of intersect and ebb and flow. Peter has used that as powerful tools in his career. I think it's fascinating to hear those examples. Other listeners of the podcast who, who do have more than one language, who do understand and have experience across multiple cultures, maybe oughta see some, uh, some interesting opportunities for themselves in, in, in cyber security maybe moving forward.Nic:I also thought it was fascinating to hear Peter talk about working to try and get funds and sort of treasures and I think gold, l-literal gold that was taken during the second world war. And getting them back to it's original owner. Sort of like, a repatriation effort. As you say, Natalia, these are all things that I think our friends and family think of when they hear the words cyber security. Oh, I'm in cyber security. I'm an investigator in cyber security. And they have this sort of, visions, these Hollywood visions. Nic:This is, that's Peter. That's what he's done. And he's, he talk about it in his episode. It's a great episode.Natalia:And with that, on with the pod.Nic:On with the pod. Nic:(music)Natalia:Welcome back to Security Unlocked, Peter Anaman.Peter:Thank you very much. Thanks for having me back.Natalia:Well, it was a pleasure to talk to you, first time around. So I'm really excited for the second conversation. And in this conversation we really love to chat about your career in cyber security. How you got here? Um, what you're doing? So let's kick it off with a little bit of a refresher for the audience.Natalia:What do you do at Microsoft and what does your day-to-day look like?Peter:So in Microsoft, I work within the legal department. Within a group called the Digital Crimes Unit. We are a team of lawyers, investigators and analysts who look at protecting our customers and our online services from, um, organized crime or attacks against the system. And so we, we bring, for example, civil and criminal referrals in order to do that action. On a day-by-day basis, it's very, very varied. I focus more on business email compromise present with some, with some assistance on ransomware attacks and looking at the depths and the affiliates there. As well as looking at some attacks against the infrastructure based on automated systems. Peter:So it's kind of varied. So on a day, I could, for example, be running some crystal queries or some specialized database queries in order to look for patterns in unauthorized or illegal activity taking place in order to quickly protect our customers. At the same time, I have to prepare reports. So there's a lot of report writing just to make sure that we can articulate the evidence that we have. And to ensure we respect privacy and all the other rules, you know, when we present the data.Peter:And also, in addition to that, uh, big part of it is actually learning. So I take my time to look at trends of what's going on. Learn new skills in order to know that I can adapt and automate some of the processes I do.Nic:Peter, as someone with an accent, uh, I'm always intrigued by other people's accents. May I inquire as to your accent, sir. Um, I'm hearing, I think I'm hearing like, British. I'm hearing French. There's other things there.Peter:(laughs)Nic:Would you elaborate for us?Peter:Yes, of course. Of course. Oh so, I was born in Ghana, West Africa and spent my youth there. And later on went to the UK where I learned that, I had to have elocution lessons to speak like the queen. And so I had lesson and my accent became British. So but at the same time, I'm actually a French national. Um, I've been in the French army as an officer. And so, that's where the French part is. And throughout, I've lived in different countries doing for work. Uh, so I've learned a bit of German, a bit of Spanish on the way.Nic:I, I actually cheated. I looked at your, um, LinkedIn profile and I see you have six languages listed.Peter:Yes.Nic:The two, the two that you didn't mention, I am embarrassingly ignorant of Fante? And T-Twi, Twi? What are they?Peter:Twi and Fante are two of the languages that are spoken in Ghana. They're local languages. And so growing up, I always had that around me. When I went to my father's village where his, we communicate in that language. English is kind of the National Language but within the country, people really speak their own languages. So I've ticked it off now. Can I speak fluently in, in it? No, I've been away for too long. But if you put me there, I would understand everything they're saying. Nic:What are the roots of those two languages? Are they related at all? Or are they completely separate?Peter:They are related but one, one person cannot always understand the other. If you look more broadly, you look at for example, the African continent all are, you'll find that there are over, from what we understand, over, what was it? 2,000 languages are spoken on the continent. So sometimes a person, say on the east coast doesn't understand the person in the west coast, you know. And, and it's fascinating because, you know, when we look at cyber crime, we are facing a global environment. Which is actually pretty carved out, right? The physical world is still pretty segmented.Peter:And so when, for example, investigating some crimes taking place in Nigeria, well they speak pidgin English. And so we have to try and adapt to that to understand, what do they really mean when they say, X or Y? And so, you know, it kind of opens our mind at, as we're doing the investigations. So we have to really try and understand the local reality because the internet is not just one place. And I think, you know, working for, you know, Microsoft and with such an amazing diverse team, we've been able to share knowledge.Peter:So for example, in the case I mentioned, I went to my colleague in Lagos, Abuja. He went, oh, that's what it means. And we're like, okay great. That one makes a lot more sense. And so we can move on. So we have this kind of richness in the team that allows us to lean on each other and, you know, sort of drive impact. But yeah, language is very important. (laughs)Natalia:I was gonna ask, do you have any interesting examples in which the culture was really important to cracking in the case or understanding a specific part of a case that you were working?Peter:Yes. So there was one case I worked on earlier on which was in Lithuania. And in Lithuania, for a very long time, this group had been under investigation but they were very good at their Op Sec and used some, uh, different types of encryption and obsolete, obsolete communication to hide themselves. But what I learned from the chats and when I was, this was in an IRC, it started in IRC channels and then moved out of there afterwards. But I noticed that there was a lot of Italy. There was a lot of Italian references. And my grandfather was Sicilian so I've spent time in Italy. So I kind of understood that they traveled to Italy.Peter:So in part of the persona, I made reference to Sicily. And I just said, you know, that's where my grandfather's from. And this, didn't give a name obviously, but it kind of brought them closer, right? Because like, oh, yeah we, we get it. And after about two, three months, I was able to get them to send me pictures of them going on vacation in Italy. And unfortunately for them, the picture had geo-location on it. And also, we were able to blow it up to get the background of where they were in the airport and using the camera from the airport, we were able to identify who they were. And then go back to the passport, find their path and they got arrested a few weeks later. Peter:So but to get that picture, to get that inner information required a kind of, trust that was being built in the virtual world and that comes from trying to understand the culture. By teasing out, asking questions about who are you and what do you like. So that's just one example.Nic:N-no pressure in answering this question and we'll even, we'll even cut it out of the edit if it's one you don't wanna go with.Peter:(laughs) Sure.Nic:If you're good with it. But um, uh, I heard you now talk about personas and identities and y-you just sort of hinted at it in the answer to the previous question. It sounds like some of the work that you have done in the past has been about creating and adopting personas in order to go and learn more information about bad actors and groups out there in, uh, in cyber land. Is that accurate and are you able to talk about what that role and that sort of, that work look like, when you're performing it?Peter:Yeah. So before you have Peter:...persona, you have to understand where that persona's gonna be acted, right?Peter:And I'll give you an, an example of a story. Once I had to go to LA to give a presentation and when I got to the airport I got a cab. And in the cab I looked at the guy's, the license plate of the, of the person. And I said, I bet you, I can guess, which country you were born in. He was like, an African American kind of person. He goes, impossible. No one has guessed it, you will never know. I was, all right. Are you ready? You're from Ghana. And his mind was blown. He was like, how, how did you pin that to one country? I was like, well, in your name, you have Kwesi. And I know if you're born in a country, in Ghana and have Kwesi, it means you're born on a Sunday. So that fact that you have your, that name there, that means you were born from Ghana. He goes, you are right. And so that was that. Peter:And I said, I miss some food, the cuisine from my, from, from Ghana. And he goes, oh, I know a great place. It's in Compton. I said, go. Uh, when? So I went into my restroom, showered, go ready, try to g-got into a taxi and he goes, I'm not going into Compton. I was like, well, why not? I wanna go to that restaurant. And he goes, oh, no, no, no. I'm going to get robbed or something bad is going to happen to me. I was like, but it- By the way, he left, he went, I had a great meal. Afterwards, I spent two hours in the restaurant 'cause no taxi would come and pick me up. And eventually, the waitress took me to a local casino. And I got a cab there and I got back.Peter:Where, where I'm going with this story is about the environment. I didn't know what Compton meant, right? So if I created a persona that went there that didn't know the environment, they would not succeed. They would stick out like a sore thumb. They would, they would fail. So the first idea, is always to understand what are the different protocols.Peter:If I'm looking at, for example, FTP or IRC, the different peer-to-peer networks. Or I'm looking at NNTP and the old internet, you know. All of those work, you need different tools to work there. Different ways to collect evidence and different breadcrumbs you could leave that you need to know it may be needed. Because when you're there, you're there, right? And it's, you're leaving, you're leaving a mark. Also some people say, use proxies. Well, the problem with proxies that someone could know you got a proxy on. Because well, there's lots of systems out there. So it's about using the system. Understanding how it's interconnected so that when you show up, you show up without too much suspicion.Peter:The other thing I learned is that the personas have to, have to be kind of, sad. 'Cause what I found is that when they were a bit sad, like, I'm happy with your work and things like that. What I found, that's me, right? I found that people were more interested because people are kind by nature, right? And so when they see that you're sad, they're more likely to communicate with you. While, while if you're too confident, I can do everything. They're like, uh, no, that person. Peter:So I try to like, psychologically look at ways to make the person as real as possible, based on my experience, right, because if it was based on me, I would be called out. Because I will be inventing a character that's, was not real. If you try to give me a trick question, because it's based on me, the answer's gonna be the same. I've got, the persona is me. It's just different. And so that's how I took my time to understand it. I spend a lot of time learning the internet, the protocols, you know, how does P2P actually work. When I, going to an IRC channel or when I'm looking at the peer-to-peer network and looking at the net flow. So the data which is passing from my computer upload. What other information is flowing. Peter:Because if I can see it, they can see it, right? And at the same time I have to have the tools. So I was very fortunate to have, for example, some tools that can switch my IP address with any country, like, every minute. So I could really change personas and change location really rapidly and no one would know better 'cause I'm using different personas in different contexts, right?Peter:Now, I never lie. One of, one of the clear things is that you never, I never try and do anything illegal because I have to assume that law enforcement is on the other side. And that's not what I'm trying to do. So I'm not gonna commit the crime. I'm not going to encourage you to do the crime. I'm just listening and just being curious about you. But then people make mistakes because they share, they over share sometimes without knowing. Maybe they're too tired or something. Natalia:I have a bit of a strange question. So with the lockdown, culturally, people are expressing publicly that they feel like they're over sharing. Because they're all locked indoors. They have, their only outlet is to share online. So have you noticed that in your work in security? Do, are people over sharing in that underground world as well? Or there, there hasn't been an equal shift?Peter:No, I, I, I, actually think it's getting worse. Um, and part of the reason is, as more people go online, they're speaking more about how to be anonymous. So for example, I've seen a rapid increase in BackConnect. These are residential IP addresses used as proxies. Well 'cause now they're communicating to each other, saying, hey, we're all online and this is how you can get found out. And so there actually there's more sharing going on. You know, I look at this, many more VPN services out there. It just seems, they're better prepared. Now, obviously, we see a lot more, right? So I'm definitely seeing more sophistication because people are spending more time online. So they, they're not walking around waiting for the bus. They're reading, they're learning, they're adapting. They communicate with each other. Peter:I've even found like, cyber crime as a service, we've found clusters of groups of people. And when you look at that network, you could see. They're saying, oh, I offer phishing pages or I offer VPN. They become specialized. So now you have people that are saying, I am just gonna focus on getting your, for example, some exploits. Or I'm just gonna focus on getting you, um, some red team work so that you can go and drop your ransomware. You know what, they, they've become more specialized actually because they're online. And they've got the time to learn.Nic:Peter, you mentioned earlier, some time you spent in, I think, was it the French army, is that correct?Peter:Yes, that's correct.Nic:Do you want to talk about that? Was that your foray into security? Did it, did it begin with your career in the army? Or did it begin before then?Peter:Hmm. I think it started probably before then. In a sense that, once I left high school, I decided I wanted to study law. Because I wanted the system that I was gonna be working in. And so I went to law school, uh, in the UK. And when I came out, unfortunately, the market was not as good. So I couldn't get a job. And when I looked around at what other trenches I had. I found there was an accelerated cause to become an officer in the French Army. It's a bit like, West Point in the US. Or, and so to do that, it was basically two years, it a two year program condensed into four months. It was hard. And so (laughs) I-Nic:It was what? No sleep? Is that what it was? (laughs)Peter:Ahhh. I've lived through little sleep.Nic:No sleep before meals.Peter:Yeah. I had to, you know, even- Well one time, I even had to evacuated because I got hyperten- you know, uh, hypothermia. (laughs) It was, uh, sort of a character build, character builder, I like to call it that. Uh, but really I think that started the path. Uh, but for the security side was, was after that. So, 'cause of my debts from law school, I, I left the army and I went to, back to the UK. And there, the first job I found was to be a paralegal, photocopying accounts, bank accounts opened between 1933 and 1947. It was part of something called a survey. And it actually had something to do with the Nazi gold.Peter:So what happened is that during the second world war, a lot of peop- uh, people of Jewish origin, saw that they were gonna be persecuted and took their money to, uh, Switzerland and put them in numbered accounts. And kept the number in their head. While unfortunately, so many of them sadly, uh, were victimized, they died. And the number died with them. Well, the money stayed in the accounts and over time because the accounts were dormant, well, you had charges. And so the money left. Peter:And so this was something that Paul Volcker, I believe it was, started the survey to get the Swiss banks to comply and give the money back to the families as result. So I was part of a team investigating one of the banks there. And although I started photocopying, I looked at, using my military skills, to be very efficient. So I was the best photocopier.Natalia:(laughs)Peter:And uh, and we were five levels underground. And that's what I did and I worked hard. And then after a few weeks, I got promoted to manage, uh, photocopiers. The people photocopying. We were a great team. And after that, they realized I was still hanging around because everyone was sleeping. 'Cause working five levels underground is a bit depressing sometimes. Peter:And so eventually, I became a data analyst. And so now I had to do the research on the accounts to try and find someone writing in pen, oh, this number is related to this other main account. Or this there piece of evidence is linked to this name. And so basically, for about, I think about three years, I basically, I eventually ran the French team and we looked at all the French cards opened from that period. And that started the investigations and sort of, trying to think deeper into evidence and how to make it work. Natalia:I really didn't think of myself as being cool before this, but I'm definitely not cool after hearing this. It's been validated, these stories are way beyond me. Peter:(laughs) Well, no. Just stories.Natalia:(laughs) So what brought you to Microsoft? That how did you go from piracy investigation to working at Microsoft as an investigator?Peter:So what took place was actually, my troubles created by Microsoft. So back in 2000 it was Microsoft who actually saw that the internet was becoming something that could really hurt internet commerce and e-commerce of role and wanted to make sure Peter:But they could contribute to it, and participate by building this capacity. And all the way through, they were one of my clients, at, essentially. And at some point, I realized that in my career, working for different customers, clients is great, because you learn, you don't have something different. So, for example, a software company is very different to a games company. Is different to a publishing company, is different to a mo- motion picture company, although it's digital piracy, it's actually very different in many respects. And I have- I saw how Microsoft was investing more in the cloud at that time, and I saw that as a big opportunity to really help a bigger threat to the system, right? Peter:And when I say to the system, E-commerce, 'cause everything was booming, this was in like 2008. And so, I decided that I would work for them. And actually, they offered me the job. So, I- I didn't, you know, I'm very privileged to be where I am now. But the, the, the way they positioned it is that they were looking for someone to help develop systems to map out, create a heat map of online piracy. I was like, "Wow, this is a global effort." So, uh, that's what I came on board with. And I built actually, a, a system similar to Minority Report, whereby I got basically these crawlers that I built that would go out and visit all these pirate sites. And you'll find this fascinating 'cause... Well, I found it fascinating, in some cases- Natalia:(laughs). Peter:... as we accessed the forums that we're offering, you know, download sale, RapidShare was one of the companies at the time, as we shut them down, they have crawlers in the forum, which will go and replace them. So, we had machine or machine wars, where we would shut down a URL, and then they would put another one. The problem is that our system was infinite. That is, we can, the machine can keep clicking. For them, they had about 10 groups of files. And so once they reached number 10, that was it. So, I found a way to automate the systems. And then after that using the, the Kinect, do you remember the Xbox Kinect? Nic:Cer- certainly. Peter:Managed to hack that, and the way it happened is that I built a map on Bing, whereby the Kinect could look in my body structure. And as I moved my hand, it would drill in to a country. And when I pushed, it would create, like, a, a table on the window with the number of infringements, what products were offered, when was the last time it was detected. And then, I could just wave it away and it would go, and then I could spin the world, it was a 3D map to go to another country and say, "What are the concentrations of piracy?" In this way, we had a visualized way of looking at crime as they were taking place online, and then zoom in and say, "We need to spend more effort here." Right? Peter:So, as well, just getting data analytics, but in a 3D format. And so, that was part of the excitement when I joined, is how to do that. Another example is, I found that, I read some research where it said that basically humans only spend a minute and a half on any search query. You know, in itself it doesn't mean much. But imagine you have a timer and it's one second, two seconds, three seconds, right? You're waiting for a minute and a half, right? So, 90 seconds, let's double that and say 180 seconds. Basically, let's say three minutes, it means that if you go to anyone you know, and ask them, "Go and search for Britney Spears downloads." And you look too, go, do, do the search, and they will click a link, nothing. Go next, click next, and they'll keep going. Peter:Before the three minute mark, they'll stop. They'll change the query, they'll do something different. Because they wouldn't get a result. Which means that when you do a search, and a search has got a million results, uh, it doesn't really matter. People are not going to go through the million. So, I started to think about the problems that when executives and people were saying, "Oh, I go on the internet, and I can find bad stuff." I was like, "Okay, but you can do like in three minutes. How about I build a robot that will pretend to be you, and go and find the infringements within that three minute window? Which is about 400 URLs. But I'm going to hit it with like send 100 queries, distributed." Peter:All of a sudden, we were finding the infringements before anyone could click on it, because we would report it to Google, Bing, Yandex, Baidu. And they would remove it from the, from the search results. And then, we had a measurement system, which would check and see, if I was a human, how many seconds would it take before I found an active download? Right? You could automate it. And so, we had a dashboard that could show that, and it worked. You know, we could, we saw a decline in the number of complaints because, well, it wasn't as visible. Now, if you knew where the pirate bay was, yeah, okay. But that wasn't really what we were doing. We were looking at protecting people from getting downloads which contain malware, or something nefarious, right? And, and, so we built these systems to protect consumers, essentially.Natalia:So, is there a connection, or maybe a community behind the work that you've done in piracy and the world of copyright? Uh, any, any best practices that are shared with content creators who are equally concerned with a malware being in their content, or just the sheer, the sheer fact that someone is pirating their content?Peter:I think from a contents per- perspective, and there are several amazing organizations out there, such as the BSA, Business Software Alliance, you have the MPAA, you know, you have the RIAA, and also IACC, the International Anti-Counterfeiting Coalition. Who have just incredible guidance for their members, which are specialized. So, for example, when you look at counterfeit goods, that's a very different thing to like, say, video, because video is distributed in a diff- different way. But one thing, which I think is important is that you don't just leave your, your house open, you lock it with a key, otherwise, someone will just come in and take your stuff. Peter:So, I think the same with contents, that when we create content, we have to find a way to work not only with different organizations that are looking to protect those rights, but also assume your own responsibility of locking your door. For example, what security could you put on it? Right? To maintain it? And how could you work with law enforcement who are there to protect the law, right? There are, I think there are different things that could be considered but most of it really, I would say the best is to start with the industry association, because they are much more specialized, and can give better advice, depending on the nature of the content that the person has. Peter:But, you know, when we were looking at online piracy, it wasn't just online piracy, because, you know, Microsoft participated in something called Operation Pangea. This was an Interpol driven operation where we found that a Russian organization that was distributing software for download in the millions of dollars, we took action to dismantle their payment mechanism. So, Visa and MasterCard would stop the payment on their website. So, they moved to prescription drugs, and they started selling prescription drugs. And so, for certain, it's really not in Microsoft's mandate to do that, right? Peter:But what we did is that we provided the expertise, and the knowledge we have to law enforcement to detect these websites. There were about 10,000 of them, and then drill down to say, "What's the payment gateway?" Because that's a choke point, you know, a criminal, definitely does what he does for the money. You know, you're not gonna rob a bank if there's no money there, right? So, with that in mind, they were able to do really, massively disrupt this organization. And that's because Microsoft looks at providing its expertise, and also learning from other people's expertise, right? But to tackle this bigger problem that impacts all of us.Nic:Peter, I'd love to circle back to language for a sec here. And when you were talking about the languages that you speak, and, and the importance of understanding culture. From your perspective, do you think there are countries, language groups, ethnic groups that are disproportionately... Well, I'm trying to think of the most elegant way to say, not protected or not protected as well as they could because they speak a language that is, you know, not as prevalent? So, you know, I looked at, you know, I'd never heard of the two, the two, uh, Ghanaian languages that you had on your- Peter:Mm-hmm (affirmative). Nic:... on your profile there, I'm not even gonna say them right, but Fante and- Peter:(laughs), so, it's Fante and Twi. Nic:Fante and Twi. So- Peter:Perfect. Nic:... native Fante, and Twi, I'm, I'm assuming there's, there's hundreds of thousands, maybe even millions of speakers of those- Peter:Yeah. Yes, absolutely.Nic:... two languages?Peter:Yes, yeah. Nic:Do AI and ML systems allow for supporting people that, you know, either don't speak English, or a sort of major international language?Peter:You're touching on something, which is very near and dear to me, 'cause it's a whole different conversation. And if you look at the history of language, there's, a, a great group of seminars written about it. It's actually I think, I believe, somewhere, I read somewhere that 60% of languages are actually not written. Right? And yes, you can go and see Microsoft has, translates between say, 60 or 100 pairs of languages, and Google the same. But what about the others? What about the thousands of others, that I think there are over 6,000 languages in the world. You're right. I mean, earlier this year, if I may be personal, I'm trying to adopt a baby girl. And so, I went to Ghana to try and manage the situation, which is very slow. Peter:And when I was there, I just saw the reality that, you know, they don't have access to resources, right? Because a book costs money. And so even for AI, how would they even know what AI is? So, I think there is an increasing gap, which is taking place. We can't keep build, building bigger walls, because it's just not going to work. We gotta be, we gotta think bigger than that. And so, one of the ideas is that when we look at some of the criminals, like I've had quite a few of them, a lot of them go to the same technical universities, for example, in West Africa. Well, why is that? It's cause I think they develop skills, and then they leave, and they can't get a job. And so, they end up being pulled into a life of cybercrime. So, culture Peter:It's I think becoming an important thing is that, there is a bigger and bigger divide 'cause not as many people have access to the resources, and how can we as a community who do have access, sort of proactively contribute to that? 'Cause we can't, there's no way you can, you know, just Nigeria has 190 million people. That's a lot of people, that's a lot people. The African continent has 1.2 billion. Asia, four billion, was like, um, I think it's like, is it two, three billion? No, two billion? Something like that but it's a lot people- Nic:It's a lot. Peter:... outside, right? (laughs). And so I think, I'm glad you brought that up 'cause I think it's a- an interesting conversation that we need to develop even, even more. Natalia:So, just trying to distill some of that down. So, are, are you saying then that, uh, at least when we're looking at language, there is a greater diversity of threat actors than there are targets? That those targets are centralized more around English speakers, but because of disproportionate opportunities in other parts of the world, we see threat actors across a number of different languages, across a number of different cultures? Peter:Yes. I, I think that's, that's a goo- uh, kind of a good summary of that, but I'll probably take it a step further and say, from my vantage point, again, you know, there are many other more brilliant people out there than me, I can only speak of what I've seen. I still find there are concentrations, right? When you look at business email compromise, and you go and pick up a newspaper and say, "Show me all articles about BEC, the biggest crime right now in the world, and show me all the people who've been arrested." Guess what? They're all from one place, West Africa. Why? Because if you look at the history of that crime, BEC, it was a ruse. Before that it used to be called, it was all under the category of Advanced E-fraud, but it used to be a lottery scam. Oh, the Bill and Melinda Gates lottery, you've won $25 million, or, uh, the Nigerian prince, right?Peter:Some people call 419 which is a criminal code in Nigeria. And then it went further back, they used to send faxes. Or, a lot of people developed a culture called the Yahoo boys, right? They it called Yahoo-Yahoo. And what they do is you go on YouTube, and you search for Yahoo-Yahoo, you'll see them like there's a whole culture behind that. They're dancing, they say, "This is my Monday car, my Tuesday car." And because they're making money and their communities are not, the community helps them because they get money. The stolen money is shared, and so now it becomes harder to break that because it becomes part of a culture. And so, that's why we see a lot more there I think than for example, in the US, or in Russia or in other countries it's 'cause I think there was, there's a, they have this kind of lead way that they'd be doing it for a lot longer and have a better sense of how to be sly. Nic:It sounds like the, the principles of reducing crime apply just as generally in the cyberspace as they do too in the, the non-cyber space. Whereas if you can give opportunities and lu- you know, um, lucrative opportunities to people, to utilize the skills that they've developed, both sort of in an orthodox or in an unorthodox fashion- Peter:Mm-hmm (affirmative). Nic:... then they're gonna put those skills to good use. But if you, if you train them up and then don't give them any way of using those skills to, to go, you know, ma- make a living in a, in a positive sense, they're, they're gonna turn to other, other avenues. Sounds like in, in, in parts of West Africa, that is business email compromise.Peter:Right, it is. And if I could just add two things there, one is that, you know, when I started looking at how to address cyber, online criminality, I have to look at the physical part of it. And in the physical world, there's actually, I call them neighborhoods. You have good neighborhoods, and bad neighborhoods, right? There are some neighborhoods you go to, no one's going to pick pockets you, right? Everyone's got a nice car or whatever. The other neighborhoods you go to, and there are some shady people in the corner, probably selling drugs or something. You know, uh, I'm, I'm being very simplistic, but I'm just trying to say, there are differences in neighborhoods in the physical world, and those need to be looked at as well. Because even if you gave education or a job to someone in a bad neighborhood, because of the environmental pressure, they may not be able to leave that neighborhood because they could be pressured into it. Peter:Online it's the same, I found that you see there are clusters of criminal activities that happen. And in those virtual they're interconnected, it's like, like two, or three levels, they know each other mostly. And so, we can have this kind of, we have to think more holistically, I suppose. I'm trying to say, Nic, that, it, we also have to look at the neighborhood and how do you make sure, for example, that neighborhood they have a sports field or the streets are clean because it makes you feel good, right? There's, there are other environmental factors that I think we may need to consider in a more holistic way. We, we can move much faster that way, because there are different factors, uh, which contribute to this.Nic:So, Peter, I honestly feel like we could keep chatting for the next four hours, right? Natalia:(laughs), I know. Peter:(laughs). Nic:We, we, (laughs). We, we've already, (laughs), eaten up a, a lot of your time, and we've covered a lot of ground. I'd love to circle back one final time to, to language and really sort of ask you is, eh, maybe it's not language, but is there something that you sort of feel particularly passionate about in your career at Microsoft? What you've done so far, what you're working on, and what you hope to do moving forward, is language and opening up accessibility through language, and other sort of cultural diversity? You, you, you, spoke a lot about that in the last sort of, you know, 45 minutes. Is that, is that something that you're personally, uh, invested in, and would like to work more on in the future? And, and if not, what other areas are you, are you looking forward to in the future? Peter:It's, it's absolutely something I'm, I'm very passionate about. And within Microsoft, as an example, the company has invested a lot in diversity and inclusion and equity, and it ended last year, but I was the president of the Africans in Microsoft employee resource group, for example, which has close to a thousand people. And all of it is about helping, working in a two way street, where we help our community, who are at times new in the country. And so, don't understand the cultural differences and how do we help them better, not integrate, but be themselves. And also, allow others that don't understand that they may be a minority, but there's so much richness to that diversity and how it makes teams stronger, because then you're not all looking through the same lens and you can bring in, you know, different perspectives about it. So, I'm absolutely invested in that, not just here in the US but also, you know, the African continent. Peter:And, and I'm very fortunate to be working in a company that's actually pushing me to do that. You know, the company is, is doing amazing things when it comes to diversity and inclusion. And yes, there's room to be made, but at least they're active. Going back really quickly to what you mentioned about language and AI, when we look at the internet, the internet is still zeros and ones. So, when you look at machine learning models, a lot of it is looking for like over 250 signals, right? In a, in one site. And it's not just about the language, it's about different languages, computer code and human code. And so, the machines are bringing those two together, which can help better secure platforms. Natalia:And just as we wrap up here, is there anything you want to plug? Any resources, any groups that you'd like to share with our audience? Peter:I think for me, you know, always try and keep updated on security. So, you know, the Microsoft Security Bulletin is a, is a great source for, uh, up-to-date information. Also, I think there are many other organizations that people can search for and reach out to me on the antenna. If you're not a bad guy or girl, I'll- Natalia:(laughs). Peter:... I'll share, (laughs), we, we can, um, actually, you know, I try to mentor as many people in our industry because, eh, together we become stronger. So, do reach out if you want to. Natalia:Awesome. Thank you for that, Peter. It was great having you on the show again, and I can honestly say, we'd be happy to have you back, and it was infinitely fascinating. Peter:Thank you very much for the invitation again. And, uh, it was a pleasure participating. Natalia:By the way, [foreign language 00:38:17]. Peter:Uh, there you go. Natalia:If you ever want to. Peter:(laughs). Natalia:(laughs). Peter:(laughs). Nic:Natalia, I didn't know you speak Spanish.Natalia:(laughs). Peter:(laughs). Natalia:Well, we had a great time unlocking insights into security from research to artificial intelligence, keep an eye out for our next episode. Nic:And don't forget to tweet us @msftsecurity or mail us at securityunlockedatmicrosoft.com with topics you'd like to hear on a future episode. Until then, stay safe.Natalia:Stay secure.
3/31/2021

The Human Element with Valecia Maclin

Ep. 21
For Women’s History Month, we wanted to share the stories of just a few of the amazing women who make Microsoft the powerhouse that it is. To wrap up the month, we speak with Valecia Maclin, brilliant General Engineering Manager of Customer Security & Trust, about the human element of cybersecurity.In discussion with hosts Nic Fillingham and Natalia Godyla, Valecia speaks to how she transitioned into cybersecurity after originally planning on becoming a mechanical engineer, and how she oversees her teams with a sense of humanity - from understanding that working from home brings unique challenges, to going the extra mile to ensure that no member of the team feels like an insignificant cog in a big machine - Valecia is a shining example of what leadership should look like, and maybe humanity too.In this Episode You Will Learn:• The importance of who is behind cybersecurity protocols• How Microsoft’s Engineering, Customer Security & Trust team successfully transitioned to remote work under Valecia’s leadership• Tips on being a more inclusive leader in the security spaceSome Questions that We Ask:• What excites Valecia Maclin about the future of Cybersecurity• How does a mechanical engineering background affect a GM’s role in Infosec• How Valecia Maclin, General Manager of Engineering, Customer Security & Trust, got to where she is todayResources:Valecia’s LinkedIn:https://www.linkedin.com/in/valeciamaclin/Advancing Minorities’ Interest in Engineering:https://www.amiepartnerships.org/SAFECode:https://safecode.org/Microsoft’s TEALS:https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/tealsMicrosoft’sDigiGirlz:https://www.microsoft.com/en-us/diversity/programs/digigirlz/default.aspxNic’s LinkedIn:https://www.linkedin.com/in/nicfill/Natalia’s LinkedIn:https://www.linkedin.com/in/nataliagodyla/Microsoft Security Blog:https://www.microsoft.com/security/blog/Transcript[Full transcript can be found athttps://aka.ms/SecurityUnlockedEp21]Nic Fillingham:Hello, and welcome to Security Unlocked, a new podcast from Microsoft, where we unlock insights from the latest in news and research from across Microsoft security engineering and operations teams. I'm Nic Fillingham. Natalia Godyla:And I'm Natalia Godyla. In each episode, we'll discuss the latest stories from Microsoft security, deep dive into the newest threat intel research and data science. Nic Fillingham:And profile some of the fascinating people working on artificial intelligence in Microsoft security. Natalia Godyla:And now let's unlock the pod. Hey Nic, welcome to today's episode. How are you doing today? Nic Fillingham:Hello Natalia, I'm doing very well, thank you. And very excited for today's episode, episode 21. Joining us today on the podcast is Valecia Maclin, general manager of engineering for customer security and trust someone who we have had on the shortlist to invite onto the podcast since we began. And this is such a great time to have Valecia come and share her story and her perspective being the final episode for the month of March, where we are celebrating women's history month. So many incredible topics covered here in this conversation. Natalia, what were some of your highlights? Natalia Godyla:I really loved how she brought in her mechanical engineering background to cybersecurity. So she graduated with mechanical engineering degree and the way she described it was that she was a systems thinker. And as a mechanical engineer, she thought about how systems could fail. And now she applies that to cybersecurity and the- the lens of risk, how the systems that she tries to secure might fail in order to protect against attacks. And I just thought that that was such a cool application of a non-security domain to security. What about yourself? Nic Fillingham:Yeah. Well, I think first of all, Valencia has a- a incredibly relatable story up front for how she sort of found herself pointed in the direction of computer science and security. I think people will relate to that, but then also we spent quite a bit of time talking about the importance of the human element in cybersecurity and the work that Valecia does in her engineering organization around championing and prioritizing, um, diversity inclusion and what that means in the context of cybersecurity. Nic Fillingham:It's a very important topic. It's very timely. I think it's one that people have got a lot of questions about, like, you know, we're hearing about DNI and diversity and inclusion, what is it? What does it mean? What does it mean for cybersecurity? I think Valecia covers all of that in thi- in this conversation and her perspective is incredible. Oh, and the great news is, as you'll hear at the end, Valecia is hiring. So if you like me are inspired by this conversation, great news is actually a bunch of roles that you can go and, uh, apply for to go and work for Valecia on her team.Natalia Godyla:On with the pod?Nic Fillingham:On with the pod. Valecia Maclin, welcome to the Security Unlocked podcast. Thank you so much for your time. Valecia Maclin:Thank you, Nic and Natalia. Nic Fillingham:We'd love to start to learn a bit about you. You're, uh, the general manager of engineering for customer security and trust. Tell us what that means. Tell us about your team, us about the amazing work that you and- and the people on your team do. Valecia Maclin:I am so proud of our customer security and trust engineering team. Our role is to deliver solutions and capabilities that empower us to ensure our customers trust in our services and our products. So I have teams that build engineering capabilities for the digital crimes unit. We build compliance capabilities for our law enforcement and national security team. And our team makes sure that law enforcement agencies are in compliant with their local regulatory responsibilities and that we can meet our obligations to protect our customers. Valecia Maclin:I have another team that provides on national security solutions. We do our global transparency centers on where we can ensure that our products are what we say they are. I have two full compliance engineering teams that build capabilities to automate our compliance at scale for our Microsoft security development lifecycle, as well as, uh, things like, uh, advancing machine learning, advancing open source security, just a wealth of enterprise wide, as well as stakeholder community solutions. Um, I could go on and on. We do digital safety engineering, so a very broad set of capabilities all around the focus and the mission of making sure that the products and services that we deliver to our customers are what we intend and say that they are Nic Fillingham:Got it. And Valencia so how does your engineering org relate to some of the other larger engineering orgs at Microsoft that are building, uh, security compliance solutions?Valecia Maclin:So our other Microsoft organizations that do that are often building those capabilities within a particular product engineering group. Um, customer security and trust is actually in our corporate, external and legal affairs function. So we don't have that sales obligation. Our full-time responsibility is looking across the enterprise and delivering capabilities that meet those broad regulatory responsibility. So again, if we think about our digital crimes unit that partners with law enforcement to protect our customers around the world, well building capabilities for them or digital safety, right? If you think about the Christ church call and what happened in New Zealand, we're building capabilities to help with that in partnership with what those product groups may need to do. So, um, so we're looking at compliance more broadly. Nic Fillingham:Got it. And does your team interface with some of the engineering groups that are developing products for customers? Valecia Maclin:Absolutely. So when you think about the work that we do in the open source security space, our team is kinda that pointy end of the spear to do, um, that assessment and identify here where some areas are that we need to put some focus and then the engineering, the product engineering groups will then and build, go and build that resiliency into the systems. Nic Fillingham:To follow up questions. One is on the podcast, we've actually spoken to some- some folks that are on your team. Uh, Andrew Marshall was on an earlier episode. We spoke with Scott Christianson, we've had other members of the digital crimes unit come on and talk about that work, just a sort of a sign post for listeners of the podcast. How does Andrew's work, uh, fit in your organization? How does Scott's work fit into your organization? Valecia Maclin:So, um, both Andrew and Scott are in a team, um, within my org, uh, that's called security engineering and assurance, and they're actually able to really focus their time on that thought leadership portion. So again, if you think about the engineering groups and the product teams, they have to, you know, really focus on the resiliency of the products, what our team is doing is looking ahead to think about what new threat vectors are. So if you think about the work that Andrew does, he partnered with Harvard and- and other parts of- of Microsoft to really advance thought leadership and how we can interpret adversarial machine learning. Valecia Maclin:Um, when you think about some of our other work in our open source security space, it is let's look forward at where we need to be on the edge from a thought leadership perspective, let's prototype some capabilities operationalizes, so that it's tangible for the engineering groups that then apply and then, uh, my guys will go and partner with the engineering groups and gi- and girls, right? So- so, um, we will then go and partner with the product groups to operationalize those solutions either as a part of our security, um, development life cycle, or just a general security and assurance practices. Nic Fillingham:Got it. And I think I- I can remember if it was Scott or Andrew mentioned this, but on a previous podcast, there was a reference to, I think it's an internal tool, something called Liquid. Valecia Maclin:Liquid, yes, uh, yeah. Nic Fillingham:Is that, can you talk about that? Cause we, uh, it was hinted at in the previous episode? Valecia Maclin:Absolutely. Yes. Yeah. So Liquid, um, actually have a full team that builds and sustains Liquid. It is a, um, custom built capability that allows us to basically have sensors within our built systems. Um, and so when you think about our security development life cycle, and you think about our operational security requirements, it's given us a way to automate not only those requirements, but you know, ISO and NIST standards. Um, and then that way, with those hooks into the build systems, we can get a enterprise wide look at the compliance state of our bills as they're going on. Valecia Maclin:So a developer in a product group doesn't have to think about, am I compliant with SDL? Um, what they can do is, you know, once the- the data is looked at, we can do predictive and reactive analysis and say, hey, you know, there's critical bugs in this part of the application that haven't been burned down within 30 days. And so rath- rather than a lot of manual and testation, we can do, um, compliance a scale. And I- I just mentioned manual and testation of security requirements. Oh, one of my other teams, um, has recently just launched Valecia Maclin:.. the capability that we're super excited about that leverages what we call Coach UL or used to be called Simile. That again, is automating kind of on the other edge, right? So, with liquid, it's once we pulled in the build data. Um, we're working with the engineering groups in Microsoft now to, um, do the other edge where they don't have to set up a test that they're compliant with security requirements. Um, we're, we're moving very fast to, um, automate that on behalf of the developer, so that again, we're doing security by design. Nic Fillingham:So, how has your team had to evolve and change, uh, the way that they, they work during this sort of the COVID era, during the sort of work from home? Was your team already set up to be able to securely work remotely or were there sort of other changes you had to make on the fly? Valecia Maclin:So, you know, uh, as we've been in COVID, my team does respond to phenomenally. We were actually well positioned to work from home and continue to function from home. You know, there were some instances where from an ergonomic perspective, let's get some resources out to folks because maybe their home wasn't designed for them to be there, you know, five days a week. So, the, the technical component of doing the work, wasn't the challenge. What I, as a leader continuously emphasized, and it's what, what my team needed, frankly, is making sure we stayed with the connectedness, right?Valecia Maclin:How do we continue to make sure that folks are connected, that they don't feel isolated? That, you know, they feel visibility from their, from their managers? And consider I had, I had 10 new people start in the past year, entirely through COVID including three new college hires. So, can you imagine starting your professional-Nic Fillingham:Wow.Valecia Maclin:... career onboarding and never being in the office with your peers or colleagues and, and, you know, and the connected tissue you would typically organically have to build relationships. And so through COVID, during COVID, we've had to be very creative about building and sustaining the connective tissue of the team. Making sure that we were understanding folks, um, personal needs and creating a safe space for that. You know, I was a big advocate way back in August where I said, Hey folks, you know, 'cause the sch- I knew the school year was starting. And even though we hadn't made any statements yet about when returned to work would, you know, would advanced to, I made a statements to my team of, Hey, it's August, we've been at this for a few months. It's not going anywhere anytime soon. Valecia Maclin:So, I don't want us carrying ourselves as if we're coming back to the office tomorrow. Let's, you know, give folks some space to reconcile what this is gonna look like if they have childcare, if they have elder care, if they're just frozen from being in- indoors this amount of time. Let's make sure that we're giving each other space for that. Also during the past year, you know, certainly we had, I would say, parallel once in a generation type events, right?Valecia Maclin:So, we had COVID, but we also had, uh, increased awareness, you know, of, of the racial inequities in our country. And for me as a woman of color that's in cybersecurity, I've spent my entire career being a, a series of first, um, particularly at the executive table. And so, you know, so it was a, an opportunity we also had in the past year to advance that conversation so that we could extend one another grace, right? So I personally was touched by COVID. I, I lost five people in the past year. Um, and I was also-Nic Fillingham:I'm so sorry. Valecia Maclin:Yeah. (laughs) And you keep showing up, right? And I was personally touched as a black woman who once again, has to be concerned about, you know, I have, uh, I have twin nephews that are 19, one's autistic and the other is not, but we won't allow him to get a driver's license yet 'cause he, my, my sister's petrified because, you know, that's a real fear that a young man who's 6'1", sweetest thing you would ever see, soft-spoken, um, but he's 6'1". He has, you know, dreadlocks in his hair or locks. He would hate to hear me say they were dreads. He has locks in his hair. Um, and he dresses like a 19 year old boy, right?Valecia Maclin:But on spot, that's not what the world sees. And so, um, that's what we're all in. Then you think about what's happening now with our Asian-American community. That's also bundled with folks who are human, having to be isolated and endorse, which that's not how humanity was designed. And so we have to remember that that shows up. And, and when you're in, in the work of security, where you're always thinking about threat actors, and I often say that some of our best security folks have kind of some orthogonal thinking that's necessary to kind of deal with the different nuances.Valecia Maclin:When you, when you are thinking about how do you build resiliency against ever evolving threats, (laughs) not withstanding the really massive one that, you know, was the next one we, we dealt with at the end of the last calendar year. Those are all things that work in the circle. And I always say that people build systems, they don't build themselves. And in this time more than ever, hopefully, as security professionals, we're remembering the human element. And we're remembering that the work that we do, um, has purpose, which is, you know, why I entered this space in, in the first and why I've spent my career doing the things I've done is because we have a phenomenal responsibility increasingly in a time of interconnectedness from a technology perspective to secure our way of life. Nic Fillingham:Wow. Well, on, on that note, you talked about sort of why you went into security. I'd love to sort of, I'd love to go there. Would you mind talking us through how you sort of first learnt of security and, and why you're excited about it, and how you made the decision to, to go into that space? Valecia Maclin:Absolutely. So, mine actually started quite awhile ago. I was majoring in mechanical engineering and material science, uh, at Duke university. I was in my junior year and, um, I should preface it with, I did my four year engineering degree in three and a half years. So, my, my junior year was pretty intense. I worked, was working on a project for mechanical engineering that I'd spent about seven hours on and I lost my data.Nic Fillingham:Ah!Valecia Maclin:I was building a model, literally, I sat at the computer because, you know, you know, back then, you know, there weren't a whole lot of computer resources, so you try to get there early and, and, and snag the computer so that you could use it as long as you needed to. I went in actually, on a holiday because I knew everybody would be gone. So, if I, I could have the full day and not have to give up the computer to someone. So, I'd spend seven hours building this model and it disappeared. Valecia Maclin:And it was the, you know, little five in a 10 floppy, I'm pulling it out, I'm looking at the box (laughs). It's gone. The, the, the model's gone. I was gonna have to start all over. I started my homework over again, but then I said, I will never lose a homework assignment like that again. So, I went and found a professor in the computer science school to agree to do an independent study with me, because as a junior, no one was gonna allow me to change my major for mechanical engineering that far in, at Duke University. So, (laughs) not, not my parents, anyway. So, I, um, did an independent study in computer science and taught myself programming. So, I taught myself programming, taught myself how to understand the hardware with, with my professors help, of course. But it was the work I did with that independent study that actually led to the job I was hired into when I graduated. Valecia Maclin:So, I've never worked as a mechanical engineer. I immediately went into doing national security work, um, where I worked for companies that were in the defense industrial base for the United States. And so I, I started and spent my entire career building large scale information systems for, you know, the DOD, for the intelligence community, and that vectored into my main focus on large, um, security systems that I was developing, or managing, or leading solutions through. So, it started with loss data, right? (laughs) You know, which is so apropos for where we are today, but it started with, you know, losing data on a software, in a software application and me just being so frustrated Valecia Maclin:Straight and said, that's never gonna happen to me again (laughs) that, um, that led me to pursue work in this space. Natalia Godyla:How did your degree in mechanical engineering inform your understanding of InfoSec? As you were studying InfoSec, did you feel like you were bringing in some of that knowledge? Valecia Maclin:One of the beautiful things and that was interesting is I would take on new roles, I'll, I'll never forget. Um, I, I got wonderful opportunities as, as my career was launched and folks would ask me, well, why are you gonna go do that job? You've never done that before, you know, do you know it? (laughs) And so what that taught me is, you know, you don't have to know everything about it going in, you just need to know how to address the problem, right? So, I consider myself a systems thinker, and that's what my mechanical engineering, um, background provided was look at the whole system, right? And so how do you approach the problem? And also because I also had a material science component, we studied failures a lot. So, material failure, how that affected infrastructure, you know, when a bridge collapse or, or starts to isolate. Um, so it was that taking a systems view and then drilling down into the details to predictively, identify failures and then build resiliency to not have those things happen again. Is that kind of that, that level of thinking that played into when I went into InfoSec. Natalia Godyla:That sounds incredibly fitting. So, what excites you today about InfoSec or, or how has your focus in InfoSec changed over time? What passions have you been following? Valecia Maclin:So, for me, it's the fact that it's always going to evolve, right? And so, you know, obviously the breaches make the headlines, but I'm one, we should never be surprised by breaches, just like we shouldn't be surprised by car thefts or home invasions, or, you know, think about the level of insurance, and infrastructure, and technology, and tools and habits (laughs) that we've, uh, we've developed over time for basic emergency response just for our homes or our life, right? Valecia Maclin:So, for me, it's just part of the evolution that we have, that there's always gonna be something new and there's always gonna be that actor that's gonna look to take a shortcut, that's gonna look to take something from someone else. And so in that regard, it is staying on the authence of building resiliency to protect our way of life. And so I, I am always passionate and again, it's, it's likely how I, you know, spent almost, you know, over 27 years of my career is protecting our way of life. But protecting it in a way where for your everyday citizen, they don't have to go and get the degree in computer science, right? Valecia Maclin:That they can have confidence in the services and the, the things that they rely on. They can have confidence that their car system's gonna break, that the brakes are gonna hit, you know, activate when they hit it. That's the place I wanna see us get to as it relates to the dependency we now have on our computer systems, and in our internet connected devices and, and IOT and that sort of thing. So, that's what makes me passionate. Today it may look like multi-factored authentication and, you know, zero trust networks, but tomorrow is gonna look like something completely different. And what I, where I'd love to see us get is, you know, think about your car. We don't freak out about the new technologies that show up in our car, you know, 'cause we know how, we, we, we get in and we drive and, and we anxiously await some people.Valecia Maclin:I, I'm kind of a control freak, I wanna still drive my car. I don't want it to drive itself (laughter). Um, but nevertheless, with each, you know, generational evolution of the car, we didn't freak out and say, Oh my gosh, it's doing this now. If we can start to get there to where there's trust and confidence. And, and that's why I love, you know, what my org is responsible for doing is, you know, that there's trust and confidence that when Microsoft, when you have a Microsoft product or service, you, you, you can trust that it's doing what you intend for it to do. And, and that's not just for here, but then, you know, when you're again, whether it's the car, or your refrigerator, or your television, that's where I'd love to, that's where I want to see us continue to evolve. Not only in the capabilities we deliver, but as a society, how we expect to interact with them. Natalia Godyla:Are you particularly proud of any projects that you've run or been part of in your career? Valecia Maclin:I am. And it's actually what led me to Microsoft, I had my greatest career success, but it, it came also at, at a time of, of, of my greatest personal loss. Literally they were concurrent on top of each other. And so I was responsible, I was the, the business executive responsible for the cybersecurity version of, of, of the JEDI program. Uh, so I was the business executive architecting our response to that work that was what the department of Homeland Security. I worked for a company that at the time wasn't known for cybersecurity, and so it was a monumental undertaking to get that responsibility. And the role was to take over and then modernize the cybersecurity re- system responsible for protecting the .gov domain. So, it was tremendously rewarding, especially in the optic that we have today. I received the highest award that my prior company gives to an individual. Valecia Maclin:I was super proud of the team that I was able to lead and, and keep together during all the nuances of stop, start, stop, start that government contracting, um, does when there's protests. But during that same time, you know, 'cause it was, so it was one of those once in a career type opportunities, if you've ever done national security work, to actually usher an anchor in a brand new mission is how we would label it, um, that you would be delivering for the government. But at the same time, that, that wonderfully challenging both technically and from a business perspective scenario was going on, I, in successive moments, lost my last grandparent, suddenly lost my sister. 12 months later, suddenly lost my mother, six months later had to have major surgery. So, that all came in succession while I was doing this major once in a career initiative that was a large cyber security program to protect our government. Valecia Maclin:And I, I survived, (laughs) right? So, um, the, the program started and did well, but I, I then kind of took a step back, right? Once I, I, uh, I'd promised the company at the time of the government that I would, I would give it a year, right? I would make sure the program transitioned since we'd worked so hard to get there. And then I took a step back and said, Hmm, what do I really wanna do? This was a lot (laughs). And so I did take a step back and got a call from Microsoft, actually, um, amongst some other companies. Uh, I thought it was gonna take a break, but clearly, um, others had, had different ideas. And so, um, (laughter) I had, I had multiple opportunities presented to me, but what was so intriguing and, and what drew me to Microsoft was first of all, the values of the company. You know, I'm a values driven person and the values, um mean a lot and I'm gonna come back to that in a moment. Valecia Maclin:But then also I, I mentioned that the org I lead is in corporate external and legal affairs. It's not within the product group. It's looking at our global obligations to securing our products and services from a, not just a regulatory perspective, but not limited by our, our sales target. And so the ability to be strategic in that way is what was intriguing and what, what drew me. When you think about the commitments the company has made to its employees and to its vendors during a time, um, that we've been in, it says a lot about the fabric of, of who we are to take that fear of employability insurance and those sorts of things that are basic human needs, to recall how early on we still had our cafeteria services going so that they could then go and provide meals for, for students who would typically get school meals. And at the same Valecia Maclin:... time it meant that those vendors that provide food services could continue to do their work. When you think about our response to the racial inequity and, and justice, social justice initiative, and the commitments were not only, not only made, but our, our keeping is the fabric of the company and the ability to do the work that I'm passionate about, that, that drew me here. Nic Fillingham:You talked about bringing the human element to security. What does that mean to you and how have you tried to bring that sort of culturally into your organization and, and, and beyond?Valecia Maclin:So, if you think about the human element of security, the operative word is human. And so as humans, we are a kaleidoscope of gender, and colors, and nationalities and experiences. Even if you were in the same town, you have a completely different experience that you can bring to bear. So, when I think about how I introduce, um, diversity, equity and inclusion in the organization that I lead, it is making sure that we're more representative of who we are as humans. And sometimes walking around Redmond, that you don't always get that, but it's the, you know, I, I come from the East Coast. So, you know, one of the going phrases I would use a lot is, I'm not a Pacific Northwestner or I don't have this passive aggressiveness down, I'm pretty direct (laughs). And so that's a different approach, right, to how we do our work, how we lean in, how we ask questions. Valecia Maclin:And so I am incredibly passionate about increasing the opportunities and roles for women and underrepresented minorities, underrepresented, uh, minorities in cybersecurity. And so we've been very focused on, you know, not just looking at internal folks that we may have worked on, worked on another team, you know, for years, and making sure that every opportunity in my organization is always opened up both internally and externally. They're always opened up to make sure that we're, we're looking beyond our mirror image to, um, hire staff. And it's powerful having people that think the same way you do, because you can coalesce very quickly. But the flip side of that is sometimes you can lose some innovation because everybody's seeing the same thing you see. And, and it's so important in, in security because we're talking about our threat actors typically having human element, is making sure that we can understand multiple voices and multiple experiences as we're designing solutions, and as we're thinking about what the threats may be. Natalia Godyla:So, for women or, uh, members of minority groups, what guidance do you have for them if they're not feeling empowered right now in security, if they don't know how to network, how to find leaders like yourself, who are supporting DNI? Valecia Maclin:One of the things I always encourage folks to do, and, and I mentor a lot is, just be passionate about who you are and what you contribute. But what I would say, uh, Natalia, is for them to take chances, not be afraid to fail, not be afraid to approach people you don't know, um, something that I got comfortable with very early as if I was somewhere and heard a leader speak on stage somewhere, or I was, uh, you know, I saw someone on a panel internally or externally, I would go up to them afterwards and introduce myself and ask, you know, would you be willing to have a career discussion with me? Can I get 30 minutes on your calendar? And so that was just kind of a normal part of my rhythm, which allowed me to be very comfortable, getting to meet new executive leaders and share about myself and more importantly, hear about their journeys. Valecia Maclin:And the more you hear about other's journey, you can help cultivate a script for your own. And so, so that's what I often encourage 'cause a lot of times folks are apr- afraid, particularly women and, and minorities are afraid to approach to say, think, well, you know, I don't know enough, or I don't know what to ask. It can be as simple as, I heard you speak, I would love to hear more about your story. Do you have time? Do you have 20 minutes? And then let, you know, relationships start from there and let the learning start from there. Nic Fillingham:As a leader in the security space, as a leader at Microsoft, what are you excited about for the future? What what's sort of coming in terms of, you know, it could be cultural change, it could be technology innovation. What, what are you sort of looking and seeing in the next three, five, 10 years? Valecia Maclin:For me it the cultural change. I'm looking forward and you heard me kind of allude to a little bit of this of, you now have the public increasingly aware of what happens when there's data loss. I'm so excited to look forward to that moment when that narrative shifts and the public learns and knows more of security hygiene, cyber security hygiene. And, and not, you know, both consumer and enterprise, because we take for granted that enper- enterprises have nailed this. And, and we're in a unique footing as a company to have it more part of our DNA, but not every company does. And so that's what I'm looking forward to for the future is the culture of that young person in the midst of schooling, not having to guess about what a cybersecurity or security professional is, much like they don't guess what a lawyer or a doctor is, right? So, that's what I look forward to for the future. Nic Fillingham:Any organizations, groups that you, you know, personally support or fans of that you'd also like to plug? Valecia Maclin:Sure. So, I actually support a, a number of organizations. I support an organization called Advancing Minorities in Engineering, which works directly with historically black colleges and universities to not only increase their learning, but also create opportunities to extend the representation in security. I also am a board member of Safe Code, which is also focused on advancing security, design, hygiene across enterprises, small midsize and large businesses. And so, so those are, are certainly, uh, a couple of, of organizations that, you know, I dedicate time to.Valecia Maclin:I would just encourage folks, you know, we have TEALS, we have DigiGirlz. everyone has a role to play to help expand the perception of what we do in the security space. We're not monolithic. The beauty of us as a people is that we can bring our differences together to do some of the most phenomenal, innovative things. And so that would be my ask is in, whatever way fits for where someone is, that they reach out to someone and make that connection. I v- I very often will reach down and, uh, I'll have someone, you know, a couple levels down and say, Oh my gosh, I can't believe you called and asked for a one-on-one. Valecia Maclin:So, I don't wait for folks to ask for a one-on-one with me. I, I'll go and ping and just, you know, pick someone and say, Hey, you know, I wanna, I just wanna touch base with you and see how you're doing and see what you're thinking about with your career. All of us can do that with someone else and help people feel connected and seen. Natalia Godyla:And just to wrap here, are you hiring, are there any resources that you want to plug or share with our audience, might be interested in continuing down some of these topics? Valecia Maclin:Absolutely. Thank you so much. Um, so I am hiring, hiring data architects, 'cause you can imagine that we deal with high volumes of data. I'm hiring software engineers, I'm hiring, uh, a data scientist. So, um, data, data, and more data, right?Natalia Godyla:(laughs).Valecia Maclin:And, um, and software engineers that are inquisitive to figure out the, the right ways for us to, you know, make the best use of it. Natalia Godyla:Awesome. Well, thank [crosstalk 00:35:11] you for that. And thank you for joining us today, Valecia.Valecia Maclin:Thank you, Natalia. Thank you, Nic. I really enjoyed it.Natalia Godyla:Well, we had a great time unlocking insights into security from research to artificial intelligence. Keep an eye out for our next episode.Nic Fillingham:And don't forget to tweet us @msftsecurity or email us at securityunlocked@microsoft.com with topics you'd like to hear on a future episode. Until then, stay safe.Natalia Godyla:Stay secure.
3/24/2021

Identity Threats, Tokens, and Tacos

Ep. 20
Every day there are literally billions of authentications across Microsoft – whether it’s someone checking their email, logging onto their Xbox, or hopping into a Teams call – and while there are tools like Multi-Factor Authentication in place to ensure the person behind the keyboard is the actual owner of the account, cyber-criminals can still manipulate systems. Catching one of these instances should be like catching the smallest needle in the largest haystack, but with the algorithms put into place by the Identity Security team at Microsoft, that haystack becomes much smaller, and that needle, much larger.On today’s episode, hostsNic Fillingham and NataliaGodyla invite back Maria Puertos Calvo, theLeadDataScientistin Identity Security and Protection at Microsoft,to talk with us about how her team monitors such amassive scale of authentications on any given day.Theyalsolookdeeper into Maria’s background and find out what got her into the field of security analytics andA.I. in the first place, and how her past in academiahelpedthattrajectory.In this Episode You Will Learn:• How the Identity Security team uses AI to authenticate billions of logins across Microsoft• Why Fingerprints are fallible security tools• How machine learning infrastructure has changed over the past couple of decades at MicrosoftSome Questions that We Ask:• Is the sheer scale of authentications throughout Microsoft a dream come true or a nightmare for a data analyst?• Do today’s threat-detection models share common threads with the threat-detection of previous decades?• How does someone become Microsoft’s Lead Data Scientist for Identity Security and Protection?Resources:#IdentityJobs at Microsoft:https://careers.microsoft.com/us/en/search-results?keywords=%23identityjobsMaria’s First Appearance on Security Unlocked, Tackling Identity Threats with A.I.: https://aka.ms/SecurityUnlockedEp08Maria’s Linkedin: https://www.linkedin.com/in/mariapuertas/Nic’s LinkedIn:https://www.linkedin.com/in/nicfill/Natalia’s LinkedIn:https://www.linkedin.com/in/nataliagodyla/Microsoft Security Blog:https://www.microsoft.com/security/blog/Transcript[Full transcript can be found at https://aka.ms/SecurityUnlockedEp20]Nic Fillingham:Hello, and welcome to Security Unlocked, a new podcast from Microsoft where we unlock insights from the latest in news and research from across Microsoft security engineering and operations teams. I'm Nic Fillingham.Natalia Godyla:And I'm Natalia Godyla. In each episode, we'll discuss the latest stories from Microsoft security, deep dive into the newest threat intel, research, and data science. Nic Fillingham:And profile some of the fascinating people working on Artificial Intelligence in Microsoft security. Natalia Godyla:And now, let's unlock the pod.Nic Fillingham:Hello, Natalia. Welcome to episode 20 of Security Unlocked. This is, uh, an interesting episode. People may notice that your voice is absent from the... This interview that we had with Maria Puertos Calvo. How, how you doing? You okay? You feeling better?Natalia Godyla:I am, thank you. I'm feeling much better, though I am bummed I missed this conversation with Maria. I had so much fun talking with her in episode eight about tackling identity threats with AI. I'm sure this was equally as good. So, give me the scoop. What did you and Maria talk about?Nic Fillingham:It was a great conversation. So, you know, this is our 20th episode, which is kind of crazy, of Security Unlocked, and we get... We're getting some great feedback from listeners. Please, send us more, we want to hear your thoughts on the... On the podcast. But there've been a number of episodes where people contact us afterwards on Twitter or an email and say, "Hey, that guest was amazing," you know, "I wanna hear more." And Maria was, was definitely one of those guests who we got feedback that they'd love for us to invite them back and learn more about their story. So, Maria is on the podcast today to tell us about her journey into security and then her path to Microsoft. I won't give much away, but I will say that, if you're studying and you're considering a path into cyber security, or you're considering a path into data science, I think you're gonna really enjoy Maria's story, how she sort of walks through her academia and then her time into Microsoft. We talk about koalas and we talk about the perfect taco.Natalia Godyla:Yeah, to pair with the guac which she covered the first time around. Now tacos. I feel like we're building a meal here. I'm kind of digging the idea of a Security Unlocked recipe book. I, I think we need some kind of mocktail or cocktail to pair with this.Nic Fillingham:Yeah, I do think two recipes might not be enough to qualify for a recipe book. Natalia Godyla:Yeah, I mean, I'm feeling ambitious. I think... I think we could get more recipes, fill out a book. But with that, I, I cannot wait to hear Maria's episode. So, on with the pod?Nic Fillingham:On with the pod.Nic Fillingham: Maria Puertos Calvo, welcome back to the Security Unlocked podcast. How are you doing?Maria Puertos Calvo:Hi, I'm doing great, Nic. Thank you so much for having me back. I am super flattered you guys, like, invited me for the second time.Nic Fillingham:Yeah, well, thank you very much for coming back. The episode that we, we, we first met you on the podcast was episode eight which we called Tackling Identity Threats With AI, which was a really, really popular episode. We got great feedback from listeners and we thought, uh, let's, let's bring you back and hear a bit more about your, your own story, about how you got into security, how you got into identity, how you got into AI. And then sort of how you found your way to Microsoft. Nic Fillingham:But since we last spoke, I want to get the timeline right. Did you have twins in that period of time or had the twins already happened when we spoke to you in episode eight?Maria Puertos Calvo:(laughs) No, the twins had already happened. They-Nic Fillingham:Got it.Maria Puertos Calvo:I think it's been a few months. But they're, they are nine, nine months old now. Yeah.Nic Fillingham:Nine months old. And, and the other interesting thing is you're now in Spain.Maria Puertos Calvo:Yes.Nic Fillingham:When we spoke to you last, you were in the Redmond area or is that right?Maria Puertos Calvo:Yes, yes. The... Last time when we, we spoke, I, I was in Seattle. But I was about to make this, like, big trip across the world to come to Spain and, and the reason was, actually, you know, that the twins hadn't met my family. I am originally from Spain, and, and my whole family is, is here. And, you know, because of COVID and everything that happened, they weren't able to travel to the US to see us when they were born. So, my husband and I decided to just, like, you know, do a trip and take them. And, and we're staying here for a few months now. Nic Fillingham:That's awesome. I've been to Madrid and I've been to... I think I've only been to Madrid actually. Where, where... Are you in that area? What part of Spain are you in?Maria Puertos Calvo:Yes, yes. I'm in Madrid. I'm in Madrid. I, I'm from Madrid.Nic Fillingham:Aw- awesome. Beautiful city. I love it. So, obviously, we met you in episode eight, but if you could give us, uh, a little sort of mini reintroduction to who you are, what's your job at Microsoft, what does your... What does your day-to-day look like, that'd be great.Maria Puertos Calvo:Yeah. So, I am the lead data scientist in identity secure and protection, identity security team who... We are in charge of making sure that all of the users who use, uh, Microsoft identity services, either Azure Active Directory or Microsoft account, are safe and protected from malicious, you know, uh, cyber criminals. So, so, my team builds the algorithms and detections that are then put into, uh, protections. Like, for example, we build machine learning for risk based authentication. So, if we... If our models think an authentication is, is probably compromised, then maybe that authentication is challenged with MFA or blocked depending on the configuration of the tenet, et cetera. Maria Puertos Calvo:So, my team's day-to-day activities are, you know, uh, uh, building new detections using new data sets across Microsoft. We have so much data between, you know, logs and APIs and interactions b- between all of our customers with Microsoft systems. Uh, so, so, we analyze the data and, and we build models, uh, apply AI machine learning to detect those bad activities in the ecosystem. It could be, you know, an account compromised a sign-in that looks suspicious, but also fraud. Let's say, like, somebody, uh, creates millions of spammy email addresses with Microsoft account, for example to do bad things to the ecosystem, we're also in charge of detecting that.Nic Fillingham:Got it. So, every time I log in, or every time I authenticate with either my Azure Active Directory account for work or my personal Microsoft account, that authentication, uh, event flows through a set of systems and potentially a set of models that your team owns. And then if they're... And if that authentication is sort of deemed legitimate, I'm on my way to the service that I'm accessing. And if it's deemed not legitimate, it can go for a challenge through MFA or it'll be blocked? Did, did I get that right?Maria Puertos Calvo:You got that absolutely right.Nic Fillingham:So, that means... And I think we might've talked about this on the last podcast, but I still... I... As a long-term employee of Microsoft, I still get floored by the, the sheer scale of all this. So, there's... I mean, there's hundreds of millions of Microsoft account users, because that's the consumer service. So, that's gonna be everything from X-Box and Hotmail and Outlook.com and using the Bing website. So, that's, that's literally in the hundreds of millions realm. Is it... Is it a billion or is it... Is it just hundreds of millions?Maria Puertos Calvo:It depends on how you count them. Uh, if it's per day, it's hundreds of millions, per month I think it's close to a billion. Yes, for... Of users. But the number of authentications overall is much higher, 'cause, you know, the users are authenticating in s- in s- many cases, many, many times a day. A lot of what we evaluate is not only, like, your username and password authentications, there's also the, you know, the model authe- authentication particles that have your tokens cash in the application and those come back for request for access. So, the... We evaluate those as well. Maria Puertos Calvo:So, it's, uh... It's actually tens of billions of authentications a day for both the Microsoft account system and the Azure Active Directory system. Azure Active Directory is also a... Really big, uh, it's almost... It's, it's getting really close to Microsoft account in terms of monthly, monthly active users. And actually, this year, with, you know, COVID, and everybody, you know, the... All the schools, uh, going remote and so many people going to work from home, we have seen a huge increase in, in, in monthly active users for Azure Active Directory as well.Nic Fillingham:And do you treat those two systems separately? Uh, or, or are they essentially the same? It's the same anomaly detection and it's the same sort of models that you'd use to score and determine if a... If an authentication attempt is, is, uh, is legitimate or, or otherwise?Maria Puertos Calvo:It's, like, theoretically the same. You know, like, we, we use the same methodology. But then there are different... The, the two systems are different. They live in different places with different architectures. The data that is logged i- is different. So, these, these were initially not, you know... I- identity only, uh, took care of those two systems, like, a few years ago, before they w- used to be owned by different teams. So, the architecture underneath is still different. So, we still have to build different models and maintain them differently and, you know, uh, uh, tune them differently. So, so it is more work, but, uh, the, the theory and the idea, their... How we built them is, is very similar.Nic Fillingham:Are there some sort of trends that have, you know, appeared, having these two massive, massive systems sort of running in parallel but with the same sort of approach? What kind of behaviors or what kind of anomalies do you see detected in one versus the other? Do they sort of function sort of s- similar? Like, similar enough? Or do you see some sort of very different anomalies that appear in one system and, and not another.Maria Puertos Calvo:They're, interestingly, pretty different. Uh, when we see attack spikes and things like that, they don't always reflect one or the other. I think the, the motivation of the people that attack enterprises and organizations, it's, it's definitely from the, the hackers that are attacking consumer accounts. I think they're, you know, they're so in the black market separately, and they're priced separately, you know, and, and differently. And I think they're, they're generally used for different purposes. We see sometimes spikes in correlation, but, but not that much.Nic Fillingham:Before we sort of, uh, jump in to, to your personal story into security, into Microsoft, into, into data science, is the... You know, these... Talking about these sheer numbers, talking about the hundreds of millions of, of authentications, I think you said, like, tens of billions that are happening every day. Is that a dream for a data scientist to just have such a massive volume of data and signals at your fingertips that you can use to go and build models, train models, refine models? Is that, you know... Is this adage of more signal equals better, does that apply? Or at some point do you now have challenges of too much signal and you're now working on a different set of problems?Maria Puertos Calvo:That's a great question. It is an absolute dream and it's also a nightmare. (laughs) So, yeah. It is... It... And I'll tell you why for both, right? Like, a... It is a great dream. Like, obviously, you bet... The, the sheer scale of the data, the, you know, the, the fact... There are a lot of things that are easier, because sometimes when you're working with data and statistics, you have to do a lot of things to estimate if, Maria Puertos Calvo:... it's like the things that you're competing are statistically significant, right? Like, do I have enough data to approach that this sample, it's going to be, uh, reflection of reality, and things like that. With the amount of data that we have, with the amount of users that we have, it's the, we don't have that, we, we don't really have that problem, right? Like we are able to observe, you know, the whole rollout without having to, to figure out if what we're seeing, you know, it's similar to the whole world or not. Maria Puertos Calvo:So that's really cool. Also, because we're, you know, have so many users, then we also have, you know, we're a big focus for attackers. So, so we can see everything, you know, that happens in, in, in the cybersecurity world and like the adversary wall, we can find it in, in our data. And, and that is really interesting. Right. It's, it's really cool. Nic Fillingham:That sounds fascinating. But let, let, let's table that for a second. 'Cause I'd love to sort of go back in time and I'd love to learn about your journey into security, into sort of computer science, into tech, where did it all start? So you grew up in Madrid, is that right? Maria Puertos Calvo:Yes. I grew up in Madrid and when I was finishing high school and I was trying to figure out like, why do I do, I just decided to study telecommunication engineering, it's what's called a Spain, but it's ev- you know, the, the equivalent who asked degrees electrical engineering. Because I was actually, you know, really, really interested in math and science and physics. They were like my favorite subjects in high school. I was pretty, really good at it actually. Maria Puertos Calvo:And, but at the same time, I was like, well, this, you know, an engineering degree sounds like something that I could apply all of this to. And the one that seems like the coolest and the future and like I, I, is electrical engineering. Like I, at that time, computer science was also kind of like my second choice, but I knew that in electrical engineering, I could also learn a lot of computer science. Maria Puertos Calvo:It w- it has like a curriculum that includes a lot of computer science, but also you learn about communication theory and, you know, things like how do cell phones work? And how does television work? And you can learn about computer vision and image processing and all, all kinds of signal processing. I just found it fascinating. Maria Puertos Calvo:So, so I, I started that in college and then when I finished college, it was 2010. So it was right in the middle of the great recession, which actually hits Spain really, really, really badly when it came to the, the labor market, the unemployment back then, I think it was something like 25%-Nic Fillingham:Wow.Maria Puertos Calvo:... and people who were getting out of school, even in engineering degrees, which were traditionally degrees that would have, you know, great opportunities. They were not really getting good jobs. People, only consulting firms were hiring them, um, and, and really paying really, really little money. It was actually pretty kind of a shame. So I said, what, what, what should I do? And I, I had been a good student during college, so, and I had a professor that, you know, he, that I had done my kind of thesis with him and his research group. Maria Puertos Calvo:And he said, "Hey, why didn't you just like, continue studying? Like, you can actually go for your PhD and, because you have really good grades, I'm sure you can just get it full of finance. You can get a scholarship that will like finance, you know, four years of PhD. And you know, that way you don't have to pay for your studies, but also you kind of like, you're like a researcher and you have, uh, like money to live." And I was like, well, that sounds like a really good plan.Nic Fillingham:Sounds good.Maria Puertos Calvo:Like I actually, yeah. So, so I could do in that. And, and I, you know, then my master said, this masters say, wasn't computer science, but it was very pick and choose, right? Like, like you could pick your branch and what classes you took. And so the master's was the first half of the PhD was basically getting all your PhD qualifying courses, which also are equivalent to, to doing your masters. Maria Puertos Calvo:So I picked kind of like the artificial intelligence type branch, which had a lot of, you know, classes on machine learning and learn a lot of things that are apply that are user apply machine learning, it's like, uh, natural language processing and speech and speaker recognition and biometrics and computer vision. Basically, all kinds of fields of artificial intelligence, where, where in the courses that I took. And, and I really, really fou- found it fascinating. There wasn't, you know, a data science degree back then, like now everybody has a data science degree, but this is like 10 years ago. Uh, at least, you know, in Spain, there wasn't a data science degree.Maria Puertos Calvo:But this is like the closest thing, uh, that, and that was my first contact with, uh, you know, artificial intelligence and machine learning. And I, I loved it. And, and then I did my masters thesis on, uh, kind of like, uh, biometrics in, in terms of applying statistical models to forensic fingerprints to, to understand if a person can be falsely, let's say, accused of a crime because their fingerprint brand only matches a fingerprint that is found in a crime scene. Maria Puertos Calvo:So kind of try to figure out like, how likely is that. Because there have been people in the past that having wrongly convicted, uh, because of their fingerprints have been found in a crime scene. And then after the fact they have found the right person and then, you know, like, uh, it's not a very scientific method, what is followed right now. So that, that was a really cool thing too, that then I never did anything related to that in my life, but, but it was a very cool thing to study when I was in, in school. Nic Fillingham:Well, that, that's fair. I've, I've got some questions about that. That's fascinating. So how did you even stumble upon that as a, as a, as a, as a research focus? Was there a, a particular case you might've read in the, in the news or something like, I, I think I've never heard of people being falsely accused or convicted through having the same fingerprints, I guess, unless you're an identical twin. Maria Puertos Calvo:Mm-hmm (affirmative). (laughs) Actually, I can tell you because I have identical twins, but also that, because I studied a lot of our fingerprints is that identical twins do not have the same fingerprints.Nic Fillingham:Wow.Maria Puertos Calvo:Uh, because fingerprints are formed when you're in the womb. So they're not, they're not like a genetic thing. They happen kind of like, as a random pattern when, when your body is forming in the womb, and they happen, they're different. Uh, so, so humans have unique fingerprints and that's true, but the problem with the, the finger frame recognition is that, it's very partial, and is very imperfect because the, the late latent, it's called the latent fingerprint, the one that is found in a crime scene is then recovered, you know, using like some powder, and it's kind of like, you, you just found some, you know, sweaty thing and a surface, and then you have to lift that from there. Right. Maria Puertos Calvo:And, and that has imperfections in, and it only, it's not going to be like a full fingerprint. You're going to have a partial fingerprint. And then, then you, basically, the way the matching works is using this like little poin- points and, and bifurcations of the riches that exist in your fingerprint. And, and then, you know, looking at the, the location and direction of those, then they're matched with other fingerprints to understand if they're the same one or not. But the, because you don't have the full picture, it is possible that you make a mistake. Maria Puertos Calvo:The one case that it's been kind of really, really famous actually happened with the Madrid bombings that happened in 2004, where, you know, they, they blew up, uh, some trains and, and a couple of hundred people died. Then they, they actually found a fingerprint in one of the, I don't remember, like in the crime scene and it actually match in the FBI fingerprint database. It matched the fingerprint of a lawyer from Portland, Oregon, I believe it's what it was. And then he was initially, you know, uh, I don't know if you ended up being convicted, but, but you know, it wasn't-Nic Fillingham:He was a suspect.Maria Puertos Calvo:... it was a really famous case. Yes. I think he was initially convicted. And then, but then he was not after they found the right person and they, they actually found that yeah, both fingerprints, like the, the guy whose fingerprint it really was. And these other guys, they, their fingerprints both match the crime scene fingerprint, but that's only because it was only a piece of it. Right. You, you don't put your finger, like, you don't roll it left to right. Like when you arrive at the airport, right. That they make you roll your finger, and lay have the whole thing it's, you're maybe just, you know, the, the, the criminal fingerprint is, is very small.Nic Fillingham:Was that a big part of the, the research was trying to understand how much of a fingerprint is necessary for a sort of statistically relevant or sort of accurate determination that it belongs to, to the, to the right person?Maria Puertos Calvo:Yeah. So the results of the research they'd have some outcome around, like, depending on how many of those points that are used for identification, which are called minutia, depending on how, how many of those are available, it changes the probability of a random match with a random person, basically. So the more points you have, the less likely it is that will happen. Nic Fillingham:The one thing, like, as, as we're talking about this, that I sort of half remember from maybe being a kid, I don't know, growing up in Australia is don't koalas have fingerprints that are the same as humans. Did I make that up? Do you know anything about this? Maria Puertos Calvo:(laughs) I'm sure, I have no idea. (laughs) I have never heard such a thing. Nic Fillingham:I have a-Maria Puertos Calvo:Now I wanna know. Nic Fillingham:...I'm gonna have to look this up.Maria Puertos Calvo:Yeah.Nic Fillingham:I have a feeling that koa- koalas, (laughs) have fingerprints that are either very close to or indistinguishable from, from humans. I'm gonna look this one up. Maria Puertos Calvo:I wonder if like a koala could ever be wrongly convicted of a crime. Nic Fillingham:Right, right. So like, if I want to go rob a bank in Australia, all I need to do is like, bring a koala with me and leave the koala in the bank after I've successfully exited the bank with all the gold bars in my backpack. And then the police would show up and they arrest the koala and they'd get the fingerprints and they go, well, it must be the koala. Maria Puertos Calvo:Exactly. Nic Fillingham:This is a foolproof plan. Maria Puertos Calvo:(laughs)Nic Fillingham:I'm glad I discussed this with you on the podcast. Thank you, Marie, for validating my poses.Maria Puertos Calvo:Now, now you can't publish this.Nic Fillingham:Oh, we talked about fingerprints. Oh, crumbs you're right. Yeah. Okay. All right. We have to edit this out of the, (laughs) out of there quick. Maria Puertos Calvo:(laughs)Nic Fillingham:Um, okay. I didn't realize we had talked so much about fingerprints. That's my fault, but I found that fascinating. Thank you. So what happens next? Do you then go to Microsoft? Do you come straight out of your education at university in Madrid, straight to Microsoft? Maria Puertos Calvo:Kind of and no. So what happens next is that while I, I finished the master's part of this PhD, and at this time I'm actually dating my now husband, and he's an American, uh, working in Washington D.C. as an electrical engineer. So I, you know, I finished my master's and my, I say, why, why do I kind of wanna go be in the US uh, so I can be with him. And, you know, I have the space, the scholarship they'll actually lets me go do research abroad and you know, like kind of pays for it. So Maria Puertos Calvo:Find, um, another research group in the University of Maryland, College Park, which is really, really close to, to DC. And, and I go there to do research for, uh, six months. So, I spent six months there also doing research. Uh, also using, uh, machine learning for, for a different around iris recognition. And, you know, the six months went by and I was like, "Well, I want to stay a little longer," like, "I, you know, I really like living here," and I extended that, like, another six months. I... And at that point, you know, I wasn't really allowed to do that with my scholarship, so I just asked my professor to, you know, finance me for that time. And, and, uh, and at that time, I decided, like, you know, I, I actually don't think I wanna, like, pursue this whole PHD thing. Maria Puertos Calvo:So, so I stayed six more months working for him, and then I decided I, I, I'm not a really big fan of academia. I went into research in, in grad school in Spain mostly because there weren't other opportunities. I was super, you know, glad I did 'cause I, I love all the research and the knowledge that I gained with all... You know, with my master's where I learned everything about Artificial Intelligence. But at this point, I really, really wanted to go into industry. Uh, so I applied to a lot of jobs in a lot of different companies. You know, figuring out, like, my background is in biometrics and machine learning. Things like that. Data science is not a word that had ever come to my mind that I was or could be, but I was more, like, interested in, like, you know, maybe software roles related to companies that did things that I had a similar background in.Maria Puertos Calvo:For like a few months, I was looking in... I, I didn't even get calls. And I had no work experience other than, you know, I had been through college and grad school. So, I had... You know, and, and I was from Spain and from a Spanish university, and there was really nothing in my resume that was, like, oh, this is like the person we need to call. So, nobody called me. (laughs) And, and then one day, uh, I, I received a LinkedIn message from a Microsoft recruiter. And she says, "Hey, I have... I'm interested in talking to you about, uh, well, Microsoft." So I said, "Oh, my God. That sounds amazing." So, she calls me and we talk about it, and she's like, "Yeah, there's like this team at Microsoft that is like run mostly by data scientists and what they do is they help prevent fraud, abuse, and compromise for a lot of Microsoft online services." Maria Puertos Calvo:So, they, they basically use data and machine learning to do things like stopping spam for Outlook.com, doing, like, family safety like finding, like, things on the web that, that should be, like, not for children. They were also doing, like, phishing detection on the browser. Um, like phishing URL detection on the browser and a co- compromise detection for Microsoft Account. And so I was like, "Sure, that sounds amazing." You know? "I would love to be in the process." And I was actually lying because I did not want to move to Seattle. (laughs) Like, at that time, I was so hopeful that I will find a job at, you know, somewhere in DC on the east coast, which is like closer to Spain and where, where we lived in. But at the same time, you know, Microsoft calls and you don't say no mostly when nobody else is calling you. Maria Puertos Calvo:Um, so, so I said, "Sure, let's, you know, I, uh... The, the least I can do is, like, see how the interview goes." So, I did the phone screen and then I... They, they flew me to Seattle and I had seven interviews and a lunch inter- and a lunch kind of casual interview. So, it was like an eight hour interview. It was from 9:00 to 5:00. And, you know, everything sounded great, the role sounded great. Um, the, the team were... The things that they were doing sounded super interesting. And, to my surprise, the next day when I'm at the airport waiting for my flight to, to go back to DC, the recruiter calls me and says, "Hey, you, you know, you passed the interview and we're gonna make you an offer. You'll have an offer in the... In the mail tomorrow." I was like, "Oh, my God." (laughs) "What?" Like, I could not... This... It's crazy to me that this was, like, only seven years ago, it... But yeah.Nic Fillingham:Oh, this is seven... So, this was 2014, 2013?Maria Puertos Calvo:Uh, actually, when I did the interview, it was... It was more, more... It was longer. It was 2012. Nic Fillingham:2012. Got it.Maria Puertos Calvo:And then I... And then starting my Microsoft in 2013.Nic Fillingham:Got it.Maria Puertos Calvo:I started as a... I think at that time, they called us analysts. But it was funny because the, the team was very proud on the, the fact that they were one of the first teams doing, like, real data science at Microsoft. But there were too many teams at Microsoft calling themselves, and basically only doing, like, analytics and dashboards and things like that. So, because of that, the team that I was in was really proud, and they didn't want to call themselves data scientists, so they... I don't know. We called ourselves, like, analysts PMs, and then we were from that to decision scientists, uh, which I never understood the, the name. (laughs) Uh, but yeah. So, that's how I started.Nic Fillingham:Okay, so, so that first role was in... I heard you say Outlook.com. So, were you in the sort of consumer email pipeline team? Is that sort of where that, that sat?Maria Puertos Calvo:Yeah. Yeah, so, uh, the team was actually called safety platform. It doesn't exist anymore, but it was a team that provided the abuse, fraud, and, and, like, malicious detections for other teams that were... At the time, it was called the Windows live division.Nic Fillingham:Yes.Maria Puertos Calvo:So, all the... All the teams that were part of that division, they were like the browser, right? Like, Internet Explorer, Hotmail, which was after named Outlook.com. And Microsoft Account, which is the consumer ecosystem, we're all part of that. And our team, basically, helped them with detections and machine learning for their, their abusers and fraudsters and, and, you know, hackers that, that could affect their customers. So, my first role was actually in the spam team, anti-spam team. I was on outbound, outbound spam detection. So, uh, we will build models to detect when users who send spam from Outlook.com accounts out so we could stop that mail basically.Nic Fillingham:And I'd loved to know, like, the models that you were building and training and refining then to detect outbound spam, and then the kinds of sort of machine learning technology that you're, you're playing today. Is there any similarity? Or are they just worlds apart? I mean, we are talking seven years and, you know, seven years in technology may as well be, like, a century. But, you know, is there common threads, is there common learnings from back there, or is everything just changed?Maria Puertos Calvo:Yes, both. Like, there, there are, obviously, common threads. You know, the world has evolved, but what really has evolved is the, the, the underlying infrastructure and tools available for people to deploy machine learning models. Like, back then, we... The production machine learning models that were running either in, like, authentication systems, either in off- you know, offline in the background after the fact, or, or even for the... For the mail. The Microsoft developers have to go and, like, code the actual... Let's say that you use, like, I don't know, logistic regression, which is a very typical, easy, uh, machine learning algorithm, right? They had to, like, code that. They had to, you know... There wasn't like a... Like, library that they could call that they would say, "Okay, apply logistic regression to, to this data with these parameters. Maria Puertos Calvo:Back then, it was, like... People had to code their own machine learning algorithms from, like, the math that backs them, right? So, that was actually... Make things so much, you know, harder. They... There weren't, like, the tools to actually, like, do, like, data manipulation, visualization, modeling, tuning, the way that we have so many things today. So, that, you know, made things kind of hard. Nothing was... Nothing was, like, easy to use for the data scientists. It... There was a lot of work around, you know, how do you... Like, manual labor. It was like, "Okay, I'm gonna, like, run the model with these parameters, and then, like, you know, b- based on the results, you would change that and tweak it a little bit. Maria Puertos Calvo:Today, you have programs that do that for you. And, and then show you all the results in, like, a super cool graph that tells you, uh, you know, like, this is the exact parameters you need to use for maximizing this one, uh, you know, output. Like, if you want to maximize accuracy or precision or recall. That, that is just, like, so much easier.Nic Fillingham:That sounds really fascinating. So, Maria, you now... You now run a team. And I, I would love to sort of get your thoughts on what makes a great data scientist and, and what do you look for when you're hiring into, into your team or into sort of your, your broader organization under, uh, under identity. What perspectives and experience and skills are you trying to sort of add in and how do you find it? Maria Puertos Calvo:Oh, what a great question. Uh, something that I'm actually... That's... The, the answer of that is something I'm refining every day. The, you know, the more, uh, experience I get and the more people I hire. I, I feel like it's always a learning process. It's like, what works and what doesn't. You know, I try to be open-minded and not try to hire everybody to be like me. So, that's... I'm trying to learn from all the people that I hire that are good. Like, what are their, you know... What's, like, special about them that I should try to look in other people that I hire. But I would say, like, some common threads, I think, it's like... Really good communication skills. Maria Puertos Calvo:Like, o- obviously the basics of, you know, being... Having s- a strong background in statistical modeling and machine learning is key. Uh, but many people these days have that. The, the main knowledge is really important in our team because when you apply data science to cyber security, there are a lot of things that make the job really hard. One of them is the, the data is... What... It's called really imbalanced because there are mostly, most of the interactions with, with the system, most of the data represents good activities, and the bad activities are very few and hard to find. They're like maybe less than 1%. So, that makes it harder in general to, to, to get those detections. Maria Puertos Calvo:And the other problem is that you're in an adversarial environment, which means, you know, you're not detecting, you know, a crosswalk in, in a road. Like, it's a typical problem of, of computer vision these days. A crosswalk's gonna be a crosswalk today or tomorrow, but if I detect an attacker in the data today and then we enforce... We do something to stop that attacker or to... Or to get them detected, then the next day they might do things differently because they're going to adapt to what you're doing. So, you need to build machine learning models or detections that are robust enough that use, use what we call features or, or that look at data that it's not going to be easy... Easily gameable. Maria Puertos Calvo:And, and it's really easy to just say, "Oh, you know, there's an attack coming from, I don't know, like, pick a country, like, China. Let's just, like, make China more important in our algorithm." But, like, maybe tomorrow that same attacker just fakes IP addresses Maria Puertos Calvo:Addresses in, in a bot that, that is not in China. It's in, I don't know, in Spain. So, so, you just have to, you know, really get deep into, like, what it means to do data science in our own domain and, and, and gain that knowledge. So, that knowledge, for me, is, is important but it's also something that, that you can gain in the job. But then things like the ability to adapt and, and then also the ability to communicate with all their stakeholders what the data's actually telling us. Because it's, you know... You, you need to be able to tell a story with the data. You need to be able to present the data in a way that other people can understand it, or present the results of your research in, in a way that other people can understand it and really, uh, kind of buy your ideas or, or what you wanna express. And I think that that is really important as well.Nic Fillingham:I sort of wanted to touch on what role... Is there a place in data science for people that, that don't have a sort of traditional or an orthodox or a linear path into the field? Can you come from a different discipline? Can you come from sort of an informal education or background? Can you be self-taught? Can you come from a completely different industry? What, what sort of flexibility exists or should there exist for adding in sort of different perspectives and, and sort of diversity in, in this particular space of machine learning?Maria Puertos Calvo:Yes. There are... Actually, because it's such a new discipline, when I started at Microsoft, none of us started our degrees or our careers thinking that we wanted to go into data science. And my team had people who had, you know, degrees in economics, degrees in psychology, degrees in engineering, and then they had arrived to data science through, through different ways. I think data science is really like a fancy way of saying statistics. It's like big data statistics, right? It's like how do we, uh, model a lot of data to, like, tell us to do predictions, or, or tell us like what, how the data is distributed, or, or how different data based on different data points looks more like it's this category or this other category. So, it's all really, like, from the field of statistics.Maria Puertos Calvo:And statistics is used in any type of research, right? Like, when you... When people in medicine are doing studies or any other kind of social sciences are doing studies, they're using a lot of that, and, and they're more and more using, like, concepts that are really related to what we use in, in data science. So, in that sense, it's, it's really possible to come to a lot of different fields. Generally, the, the people who do really well as data scientists are people who have like a PhD and have then this type of, you know, researching i- but it doesn't really matter what field. I actually know that there, there are some companies out there that their job is to, like, get people that come out of PhD's programs, but they don't have like a... Like a very, you know, like you said, like a linear path to data science, and then, they kind of, like, do like a one year training thing to, like, make them data scientists, because they do have, like, the... All the background in terms of, like, the statistics and the knowledge of the algorithms and everything, but they... Maybe they're, they've been really academic and they're not... They don't maybe know programming or, or things that are more related to the tech or, or they're just don't know how to handle the data that is big. Maria Puertos Calvo:So, they get them ready for... To work in the industry, but the dat- you know, I've met a lot of them in, in, in, in my career, uh, people who have gone through these kind of programs, and some of them are PhDs in physics or any other field. So, that's pretty common. In the self-taught role, it's also very possible. I think people who, uh, maybe started as, like, software engineers, for example, and then there's so much content out there that is even free if you really wanna learn data science and machine learning. You can, you know, go from anything from Coursera to YouTube, uh, things that are free, things that are paid, but that you can actually gain great knowledge from people who are the best in the world at teaching this stuff. So, definitely possible to do it that way as well.Nic Fillingham:Awesome. Before we let you go, we talked about the perfect guacamole recipe last time because you had that in your Twitter profile.Maria Puertos Calvo:Mm-hmm (affirmative). (laughs)Nic Fillingham:Do you recall that? I'm not making this up, right? (laughs)Maria Puertos Calvo:I do. No. (laughs)Nic Fillingham:All right. So, w- so we had the perfect guacamole recipe. I wondered what was your perfect... I- is it like... I wanted to ask about tacos, like, what your thoughts were on tacos, but I, I don't wanna be rote. I don't wanna be, uh, too cliché. So, maybe is there another sort of food that you love that you would like to leave us with, your sort of perfect recipe?Maria Puertos Calvo:(laughs) That's really funny. I, I actually had tacos for lunch today. That is, uh... Yeah. (laughs)Nic Fillingham:You did? What... Tell me about it. What did you have?Maria Puertos Calvo:I didn't make them, though. I, I went out to eat them. Uh-Nic Fillingham:Were they awesome? Did you love them?Maria Puertos Calvo:They were really good, yeah. So, I think it's-Nic Fillingham:All right. Tell us about those tacos.Maria Puertos Calvo:Tacos is one of my favorite foods. But I actually have a taco recipe that I make that it's... I find it really good and really easy. So, it's shrimp tacos.Nic Fillingham:Okay. All right.Maria Puertos Calvo:So, it's, it's super easy. You just, like, marinate your shrimp in, like, a mix of lime, Chipotle... You know those, like, Chipotle chilis that come in a can and with, like, adobo sauce?Nic Fillingham:Yeah, the l- it's got like a little... It's like a half can. And in-Maria Puertos Calvo:Yeah, and it's, like, really dark, the sauce, and-Nic Fillingham:Really dark I think. And in my house, you open the can and you end up only using about a third of it and you go, "I'm gonna use this later," and then you put it in the fridge.Maria Puertos Calvo:Yes, and it's like-Nic Fillingham:And then it... And then you find it, like, six months later and it's evolved and it's semi-sentient. But I know exactly what you're talking about.Maria Puertos Calvo:Exactly. So that... You, you put, like, some of those... That, like, very smokey sauce that comes in that can or, or you can chop up some of the chili in there as well. And then lime and honey. And that's it. You marinate your shrimp in that and then you just, like, cook them in a pan. And then you put that in a tortilla, you know, like corn preferably. But you can use, you know, flour if that's your choice. Uh, and then you make your taco with the... That shrimp, and then you put, like... You, you pickle some sliced red onions very lightly with some lime juice and some salt, maybe for like 10 minutes. You put that on... You know, on your shrimp, and then you can put some shredded cabbage and some avocado, and ready to go. Delicious shrimp tacos for a week night.Nic Fillingham:Fascinating. I'm gonna try this recipe. Maria Puertos Calvo:Okay.Nic Fillingham:Sounds awesome.Maria Puertos Calvo:Let me know.Nic Fillingham:Maria, thank you again so much for your time. This has been fantastic having you back. The last question, I think it's super quick, are you hiring at the moment, and if so, where can folks go to learn about how they may end up potentially being on your team or, or being in your group somewhere?Maria Puertos Calvo:Yes, I am actually. Our team is doubling in size. I am hiring data scientists in Atlanta and in Dublin right now. So, we're gonna be, you know, a very, uh, worldly team, uh, 'cause I'm based in Seattle. So, if you go to Microsoft jobs and search in hashtag identity jobs, I think, uh, all my jobs should be listed there. Um, looking for, you know, data scientists, as I said, to work on fraud and, and cyber security and it's a... It's a great team. Hopefully, yeah, if you're... If that's something you're into, please, apply.Nic Fillingham:Awesome. We will put the link in the show notes. Thank you so much for your time. It's been a great conversation.Maria Puertos Calvo:Always a pleasure, Nic. Thank you so much. Natalia Godyla:Well, we had a great time unlocking insights into security, from research to Artificial Intelligence. Keep an eye out for our next episode.Nic Fillingham:And don't forget to tweet us @msftsecurity or email us at securityunlocked@microsoft.com with topics you'd like to hear on a future episode. Until then, stay safe.Natalia Godyla:Stay secure.